To define the prevalence of NANB hepatitis, anti-HCV antibodies were determined in 51 patients on renal replacement therapy, in 7 transplanted patients and 17 staff members of the hemodialysis unit. Anti-HCV antibodies were evaluated using immunoenzymatic methods (Ortho HCV ELISA Test System, 1st and 2nd generation). Among hemodialysis patients, seroconversion was respectively documented in 17.6% (9/51) and 52.9% (27/51); none of the transplanted patients were positive with the 1st generation test, while 3/7 were positive with the 2nd. No statistically significant difference was found in the prevalence antibodies between transfused and nontransfused patients. ALT levels were statistically greater in patients whith anti-HCV antibodies (X<sup>2</sup> 2nd generation = 8.83; p < 0.01). Our results suggest: (1) that hemodialysis represents a risk factor; (2) the validity of substitute markers and (3) more sensitivity of the 2nd than 1st generation test.