Blog
About

14
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      An inverse association between West Nile virus serostatus and avian malaria infection status

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Various ecological and physiological mechanisms might influence the probability that two or more pathogens may simultaneously or sequentially infect a host individual. Concurrent infections can have important consequences for host condition and fitness, including elevated mortality risks. In addition, interactions between coinfecting pathogens may have important implications for transmission dynamics.

          Methods

          Here, we explore patterns of association between two common avian pathogens (West Nile virus and avian malaria parasites) among a suburban bird community in Chicago, IL, USA that share mosquito vectors. We surveyed 1714 individual birds across 13 species for both pathogens through established molecular protocols.

          Results

          Field investigations of haemosporidian and West Nile virus (WNV) infections among sampled birds yielded an inverse association between WNV serostatus and Plasmodium infection status. This relationship occurred in adult birds but not in juveniles. There was no evidence for a relationship between Haemoproteus infection and WNV serostatus. We detected similar prevalence of Plasmodium among birds captured with active WNV infections and spatiotemporally paired WNV-naïve individuals of the same species, demonstrating that the two pathogens can co-infect hosts.

          Conclusions

          Mechanisms explaining the negative association between WNV serostatus and Plasmodium infection status remain unclear and must be resolved through experimental infection procedures. However, our results highlight potential interactions between two common avian pathogens that may influence their transmission among hosts. This is especially relevant considering that West Nile virus is a common zoonotic pathogen with public health implications. Moreover, both pathogens are instructive models in infectious disease ecology, and infection with either has fitness consequences for their avian hosts.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-415) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 56

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.

          Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins.

            A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for or restricted by the I region of the MHC, and the surface marker phenotype of the majority of both types was Ly-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+, Both types of helper T cell could provide help for B cells, but the nature of the help differed. TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. TH2 cells were found among clones specific for mouse alloantigens, fowl gamma-globulin, and KLH. The relationship between these two types of T cells and previously described subsets of T helper cells is discussed.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus

              To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent (a derivation of viremia data) than other species tested. The five most competent species were passerines: Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Death occurred in eight species. Cloacal shedding of WNV was observed in 17 of 24 species, and oral shedding in 12 of 14 species. We observed contact transmission among four species and oral in five species. Persistent WNV infections were found in tissues of 16 surviving birds. Our observations shed light on transmission ecology of WNV and will benefit surveillance and control programs.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mcmn92@umsl.edu
                tkanderson@georgiasouthern.edu
                ukitron@emory.edu
                walker@msu.edu
                jbrawn@illinois.edu
                krebs2@illinois.edu
                moruiz@illinois.edu
                tgoldberg@vetmed.wisc.edu
                ricklefs@umsl.edu
                ghamer@tamu.edu
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                1 September 2014
                1 September 2014
                2014
                : 7
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121 USA
                [ ]Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8042–1, Statesboro, 30460 Georgia
                [ ]Department of Environmental Studies, Emory University, 400 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA
                [ ]Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 2215 Biomedical Physical Sciences East, Lansing, MI 48824-4320 USA
                [ ]Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, 1102 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 USA
                [ ]Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
                [ ]Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706 USA
                [ ]Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, 2475 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2475 USA
                Article
                1597
                10.1186/1756-3305-7-415
                4262112
                25178911
                © Medeiros et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Comments

                Comment on this article