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      Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz) study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

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          Abstract

          BackgroundRapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz) study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care.Methods/DesignThis four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years) or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months) and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry), duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use). This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia.DiscussionInfancy is likely to be the most effective time to establish patterns of behaviour around food, activity and sleep that promote healthy child and adult weight. The POI.nz study will determine the extent to which sleep, food and activity interventions in infancy prevent the development of overweight.Trial RegistrationClinical Trials NCT00892983Prospective meta-analysis registered on PROSPERO CRD420111188. Available from http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO

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            Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.
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              Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study.

              To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Prospective cohort study. Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related risk factors for obesity. Obesity at age 7 years, defined as a body mass index (3) 95th centile relative to reference data for the UK population in 1990. Eight of 25 putative risk factors were associated with a risk of obesity in the final models: parental obesity (both parents: adjusted odds ratio, 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.11 to 21.32), very early (by 43 months) body mass index or adiposity rebound (15.00, 5.32 to 42.30), more than eight hours spent watching television per week at age 3 years (1.55, 1.13 to 2.12), catch-up growth (2.60, 1.09 to 6.16), standard deviation score for weight at age 8 months (3.13, 1.43 to 6.85) and 18 months (2.65, 1.25 to 5.59); weight gain in first year (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10 per 100 g increase); birth weight, per 100 g (1.05, 1.03 to 1.07); and short (< 10.5 hours) sleep duration at age 3 years (1.45, 1.10 to 1.89). Eight factors in early life are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
                [2 ]Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
                [3 ]Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
                [4 ]Edgar National Centre for Diabetes and Obesity Research, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central
                1471-2458
                2011
                19 December 2011
                : 11
                : 942
                3293097
                1471-2458-11-942
                22182309
                10.1186/1471-2458-11-942
                Copyright ©2011 Taylor et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Study Protocol

                Public health

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