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      Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha cyclodextrin and reduction of post prandial glycaemic responses (ID 2926, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

      EFSA Journal

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.

           K. Hotta,  C Weyer,  S. Tanaka (2001)
          Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific protein with putative antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory effects, were found to be decreased in Japanese individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. To further characterize the relationship between adiponectinemia and adiposity, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, we measured plasma adiponectin concentrations, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (M, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) in 23 Caucasians and 121 Pima Indians, a population with a high propensity for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with percent body fat (r = -0.43), waist-to-thigh ratio (r = -0.46), fasting plasma insulin concentration (r = -0.63), and 2-h glucose concentration (r = -0.38), and positively correlated with M (r = 0.59) (all P < 0.001); all relations were evident in both ethnic groups. In a multivariate analysis, fasting plasma insulin concentration, M, and waist-to-thigh ratio, but not percent body fat or 2-h glucose concentration, were significant independent determinates of adiponectinemia, explaining 47% of the variance (r(2) = 0.47). Differences in adiponectinemia between Pima Indians and Caucasians (7.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 10.2 +/- 4.3 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) and between Pima Indians with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance (7.5 +/- 2.7, 6.1 +/- 2.0, 5.5 +/- 1.6 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) remained significant after adjustment for adiposity, but not after additional adjustment for M or fasting insulin concentration. These results confirm that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low plasma adiponectin concentrations in different ethnic groups and indicate that the degree of hypoadiponectinemia is more closely related to the degree of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia than to the degree of adiposity and glucose intolerance.
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            Effect of acarbose on platelet-derived microparticles, soluble selectins, and adiponectin in diabetic patients.

            Platelet-derived microparticles (PDMP), selectins, and adiponectin play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Acarbose has been shown to have a beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. However, its influence on PDMP, selectins, and adiponectin in these patients is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of acarbose on circulating levels of PDMP, selectins, and adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acarbose (300 mg/day) was administered for 3 months. Levels of PDMP, sP-selectin, sL-selectin, and adiponectin were measured by ELISA at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of treatment. The levels of PDMP, sP-selectin, and sL-selectin were higher in diabetic patients than in hypertensive patients (PDMP; 35.1 +/- 34.2 vs. 53.3 +/- 56.7 U/ml, P < 0.05: sP-selectin; 134 +/- 52 vs. 235 +/- 70 ng/dl, P < 0.01: sL-selectin; 569 +/- 183 vs. 805 +/- 146 ng/ml, P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences between hypertensive and hyperlipidemic patients. Before acarbose treatment, the adiponectin level of diabetic patients was lower than that of hypertensive patients. Acarbose therapy significantly decreased the plasma PDMP level relative to baseline. Acarbose also caused a significant decrease of sP-selectin and sL-selectin. On the other hand, acarbose therapy led to a significant increase of adiponectin after 3 months of administration compared with baseline (adiponectin: diabetes versus hypertension, 3.61 +/- 1.23 vs. 5.87 +/- 1.92 microg/ml, P < 0.05; diabetes versus controls, 2.81 +/- 0.95 vs. 6.13 +/- 1.24 microg/ml, P < 0.01). Twelve of the 30 diabetic patients had a history of thrombotic complications. Furthermore, the reduction of PDMP and selectins during acarbose therapy was significantly greater in the thrombotic group (12 of 30) than in the nonthrombotic group (18 of 30) of diabetic patients. Acarbose may be beneficial for primary prevention of atherothrombosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it requires a large clinical trial to test this hypothesis.
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              The beneficial effects of α-cyclodextrin on blood lipids and weight loss in healthy humans.

              α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD) is a soluble fiber derived from corn. It has previously been reported that early intervention with Mirafit fbcx, a trademarked name for α-CD, has beneficial effects on weight management in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, and that it preferentially reduces blood levels of saturated and trans fats in the LDL receptor knockout mice. The current investigation involves overweight but not obese nondiabetic individuals and was intended to confirm the effects of α-CD on both weight management and improving blood lipid levels. Forty-one healthy adults (age: 41.4 ± 13.6 years) participated in this 2-month, double-blinded, crossover study. In 28 compliant participants (8 males and 20 females), when the active phase was compared to the control phase, there were significant decreases in body weight (-0.4 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.05), serum total cholesterol (mean ± s.e.m., -0.295 ± 0.10 mmol/l, 5.3%, P < 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-0.23 ± 0.11 mmol/l, -6.7%, P < 0.05). Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) (-0.0404 ± 0.02 g/l, -5.6%, P = 0.06) and insulin levels also decreased by 9.5% (-0.16 ± 0.08 pmol/l, P = 0.06) while blood glucose and leptin levels did not change. These results suggest that α-CD exerts its beneficial health effects on body weight and blood lipid profile in healthy nonobese individuals, as previously reported in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EFSA Journal
                EFS2
                Wiley-Blackwell
                18314732
                18314732
                June 2012
                June 2012
                : 10
                : 6
                Article
                10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2713
                © 2012
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