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      A Structure-Based Drug Discovery Paradigm

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          Abstract

          Structure-based drug design is becoming an essential tool for faster and more cost-efficient lead discovery relative to the traditional method. Genomic, proteomic, and structural studies have provided hundreds of new targets and opportunities for future drug discovery. This situation poses a major problem: the necessity to handle the “big data” generated by combinatorial chemistry. Artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning play a pivotal role in the analysis and systemization of larger data sets by statistical machine learning methods. Advanced AI-based sophisticated machine learning tools have a significant impact on the drug discovery process including medicinal chemistry. In this review, we focus on the currently available methods and algorithms for structure-based drug design including virtual screening and de novo drug design, with a special emphasis on AI- and deep-learning-based methods used for drug discovery.

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          Most cited references 106

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          A fast flexible docking method using an incremental construction algorithm.

          We present an automatic method for docking organic ligands into protein binding sites. The method can be used in the design process of specific protein ligands. It combines an appropriate model of the physico-chemical properties of the docked molecules with efficient methods for sampling the conformational space of the ligand. If the ligand is flexible, it can adopt a large variety of different conformations. Each such minimum in conformational space presents a potential candidate for the conformation of the ligand in the complexed state. Our docking method samples the conformation space of the ligand on the basis of a discrete model and uses a tree-search technique for placing the ligand incrementally into the active site. For placing the first fragment of the ligand into the protein, we use hashing techniques adapted from computer vision. The incremental construction algorithm is based on a greedy strategy combined with efficient methods for overlap detection and for the search of new interactions. We present results on 19 complexes of which the binding geometry has been crystallographically determined. All considered ligands are docked in at most three minutes on a current workstation. The experimentally observed binding mode of the ligand is reproduced with 0.5 to 1.2 A rms deviation. It is almost always found among the highest-ranking conformations computed.
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            Protein structure homology modeling using SWISS-MODEL workspace.

            Homology modeling aims to build three-dimensional protein structure models using experimentally determined structures of related family members as templates. SWISS-MODEL workspace is an integrated Web-based modeling expert system. For a given target protein, a library of experimental protein structures is searched to identify suitable templates. On the basis of a sequence alignment between the target protein and the template structure, a three-dimensional model for the target protein is generated. Model quality assessment tools are used to estimate the reliability of the resulting models. Homology modeling is currently the most accurate computational method to generate reliable structural models and is routinely used in many biological applications. Typically, the computational effort for a modeling project is less than 2 h. However, this does not include the time required for visualization and interpretation of the model, which may vary depending on personal experience working with protein structures.
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              Machine learning for molecular and materials science

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                06 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 20
                : 11
                Affiliations
                Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea; mariabatool.28@ 123456gmail.com (M.B.); bilalpharma77@ 123456gmail.com (B.A.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sangdunchoi@ 123456ajou.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-31-219-2600; Fax: +82-31-219-1615
                Article
                ijms-20-02783
                10.3390/ijms20112783
                6601033
                31174387
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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