At mucosal surfaces, we must co-exist with a high density of diverse microorganisms; therefore, protection against these occurs on multiple levels. Leukocyte- and epithelial derived-antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) comprise an essential component of immune defense. These molecules possess antibacterial, antifungal and signalling properties and probably contribute to defence and maintenance of homeostasis between the host and commensal microorganisms. Among these AMPs is bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), an antimicrobial protein with potent endotoxin-neutralising activity, and several homologs. This review explores the roles of BPI and and its homologs at the mucosal interface. Congeners of BPI are under biopharmaceutical development as novel anti-infective agents, highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of this protein family.