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      Phenotyping Study of Cyclophosphamide 4-Hydroxylation in Malay Cancer Patients

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          Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an anticancer alkylating group (nitrogen mustard) and a prodrug that will be metabolized to form its active metabolite, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP). The various enzymes involved in its bioactivation can cause a wide range of CP expression and activity among patients and ultimately affect the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of this drug. The effectiveness of CP therapy can be determined by 4-OHCP level in dried blood spot (DBS).


          The purpose of this study was to conduct the phenotyping of CP 4-hydroxylation rate in Malay cancer patients.


          Phenotyping study of CP 4-hydroxylation rate to 40 subjects of Malay cancer patients was done based on the value of its bioactivity ratio (4-OHCP to CP levels).


          The result shown the cyclophosphamide 4-hydroxylation rate of 80% (n=32) subjects as ultrarapid metabolizer (UM) and 20% (n=8) as poor metabolizer (PM).


          Phenotyping study of CP 4-hydroxylation in Malay cancer patients can be conducted by quantifying CP bioactivity ratio (4-OHCP to CP level) in dried blood spot. In majority of Malay cancer patients, cyclophosphamide would be bioactivated through 4-hydroxylation in hepar rapidly as indicated by the high value of the bioactivity ratio or the increased CP clearance and 4-OHCP level.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Clinical pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide.

          Cyclophosphamide is an extensively used anticancer and immunosuppressive agent. It is a prodrug undergoing a complicated process of metabolic activation and inactivation. Technical difficulties in the accurate determination of the cyclophosphamide metabolites have long hampered the assessment of the clinical pharmacology of this drug. As these techniques are becoming increasingly available, adequate description of the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites has become possible. There is incomplete understanding on the role of cyclophosphamide metabolites in the efficacy and toxicity of cyclophosphamide therapy. However, relationships between toxicity (cardiotoxicity, veno-occlusive disease) and exposure to cyclophosphamide and its metabolites have been established. Variations in the balance between metabolic activation and inactivation of cyclophosphamide owing to autoinduction, dose escalation, drug-drug interactions and individual differences have been reported, suggesting possibilities for optimisation of cyclophosphamide therapy. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide, and possibly monitoring the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in individuals, may be useful for improving its therapeutic index.
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            Extensive genetic polymorphism in the human CYP2B6 gene with impact on expression and function in human liver.

            The human cytochrome P450, CYP2B6, is involved in the metabolism of several therapeutically important drugs and environmental or abused toxicants. In this study, we present the first systematic investigation of genetic polymorphism in the CYP2B6 gene on chromosome 19. A specific direct sequencing strategy was developed based on CYP2B6 and CYP2B7 genomic sequence information and DNA from 35 subjects was completely analysed for mutations throughout all nine exons and their exon-intron boundaries. A total of nine novel point mutations were identified, of which five result in amino acid substitutions in exon 1 (C64T, Arg22Cys), exon 4 (G516T, Gln172His), exon 5 (C777A, Ser259Arg and A785G, Lys262Arg) and exon 9 (C1459T, Arg487Cys) and four are silent mutations (C78T, G216C, G714A and C732T). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism tests were developed to detect each of the five nonsynonymous mutations in genomic DNA. By screening a population of 215 subjects the C64T, G516T, C777A, A785G and C1459T mutations were found at frequencies of 5.3%, 28.6%, 0.5%, 32.6% and 14.0%, respectively. Haplotype analysis revealed six different mutant alleles termed CYP2B6*2 (C64T), *3 (C777A), *4 (A785G), *5 (C1459T), *6 (G516T and A785G) and *7 (G516T, A785G and C1459T). By analysing a large number of human liver samples, significantly reduced CYP2B6 protein expression and S-mephenytoin N-demethylase activity were found in carriers of the C1459T (R487C) mutation (alleles *5 and *7). These data demonstrate that the extensive interindividual variability of CYP2B6 expression and function is not only due to regulatory phenomena, but also caused by a common genetic polymorphism.
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              Polymorphic CYP2B6: molecular mechanisms and emerging clinical significance.

              Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters contribute to wide and inheritable variability in drug pharmacokinetics, response and toxicity. One of the less well-studied human cytochrome P450s is (CYP)2B6, a homologue of the rodent phenobarbital-inducible CYP2B enzymes. Clinically used drug substrates include cytostatics (cyclophosphamide), HIV drugs (efavirenz and nevirapine), antidepressants (bupropion), antimalarials (artemisinin), anesthetics (propofol) and synthetic opioids (methadone). Contrary to the model polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, which were discovered by adverse drug reactions, pharmacogenetic study of CYP2B6 was initiated by reverse genetics approaches and subsequent functional and clinical studies. With over 100 described SNPs, numerous complex haplotypes and distinct ethnic frequencies, CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans. In this review, we summarize general biomolecular and pharmacological features and present a detailed up-to-date description of genetic polymorphisms, including a discussion of recent clinical applications of CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                26 January 2021
                : 15
                : 305-313
                [1 ]Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia , Depok, Indonesia
                [2 ]Indonesia Defense University , Bogor 16810, West Java, Indonesia
                [3 ]Functional Medical Staff of Surgical Oncology, Dharmais Cancer Hospital , Jakarta, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yahdiana Harahap Griya Depok Asri Blok G3 No. 1, Depok City, West Java16411, Indonesia Email yahdiana@farmasi.ui.ac.id
                © 2021 Hasanah et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 33, Pages: 9
                Original Research


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