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      Identification of distinct nanoparticles and subsets of extracellular vesicles by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation

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      Nature Cell Biology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Gene set enrichment analysis: A knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles

          Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.
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            A comparison of normalization methods for high density oligonucleotide array data based on variance and bias.

            When running experiments that involve multiple high density oligonucleotide arrays, it is important to remove sources of variation between arrays of non-biological origin. Normalization is a process for reducing this variation. It is common to see non-linear relations between arrays and the standard normalization provided by Affymetrix does not perform well in these situations. We present three methods of performing normalization at the probe intensity level. These methods are called complete data methods because they make use of data from all arrays in an experiment to form the normalizing relation. These algorithms are compared to two methods that make use of a baseline array: a one number scaling based algorithm and a method that uses a non-linear normalizing relation by comparing the variability and bias of an expression measure. Two publicly available datasets are used to carry out the comparisons. The simplest and quickest complete data method is found to perform favorably. Software implementing all three of the complete data normalization methods is available as part of the R package Affy, which is a part of the Bioconductor project http://www.bioconductor.org. Additional figures may be found at http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~bolstad/normalize/index.html
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              Extracellular vesicles: Exosomes, microvesicles, and friends

              Cells release into the extracellular environment diverse types of membrane vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin called exosomes and microvesicles, respectively. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNA. Deficiencies in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for EV formation and lack of methods to interfere with the packaging of cargo or with vesicle release, however, still hamper identification of their physiological relevance in vivo. In this review, we focus on the characterization of EVs and on currently proposed mechanisms for their formation, targeting, and function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Cell Biology
                Nat Cell Biol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1465-7392
                1476-4679
                March 2018
                February 19 2018
                March 2018
                : 20
                : 3
                : 332-343
                10.1038/s41556-018-0040-4
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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