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      Predictors of Delirium in Octogenarian Patients Hospitalized for a Hip Fracture

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Since delirium is a major complication that can arise after a patient with a hip fracture has been hospitalized, it is considered to be one of the most common geriatric conditions. Therefore, its prevention and early detection are essential for reducing both the length of the patient’s stay in the hospital and complications during the hospitalization process. Objective: To identify and analyze the predictors for developing delirium in octogenarians who were admitted to hospital for a hip fracture. Methodology: A prospective study conducted with a sample of 287 patients aged 80 years and older (mean age 87.2 ± 3.2 years; 215 women, 72 men), recruited from the Trauma Unit of the University Hospital of León (Spain). Further, 71.1% of the patients lived in a family member’s home, while the other 28.9% lived in a nursing home. After observing each patient’s interactions with their doctor in a clinical setting, the data for this study were obtained by reviewing the selected patients’ charts. The variables analyzed were sociodemographic information (age, sex, and place of residence), medical information (type of hip break and surgical intervention), cognitive impairment (MMSE score), functional level (Barthel Index score), and clinical information (pharmacological, comorbidities, complications, and the diagnosis and assessment of the severity of delirium in a patient). The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between acute confusional state and the following variables: anemia, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) III and IV patients, state of cognitive frailty and functional level, a urinary tract infection, changes in the visual field, renal arterial occlusion, and the type and dosage of drugs administered (this variable was identified in the multivariate model). The inverse relationship between anemia and acute confusional state is surprising. Conclusion: This research shows that clinical observation of acute confusional state is necessary but not sufficient for addressing this condition early and adequately in older adults who have been hospitalized for a hip fracture.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Delirium in elderly people.

          Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition in elderly people (ie, those aged 65 years or older) that is common, serious, costly, under-recognised, and often fatal. A formal cognitive assessment and history of acute onset of symptoms are necessary for diagnosis. In view of the complex multifactorial causes of delirium, multicomponent non-pharmacological risk factor approaches are the most effective strategy for prevention. No convincing evidence shows that pharmacological prevention or treatment is effective. Drug reduction for sedation and analgesia and non-pharmacological approaches are recommended. Delirium offers opportunities to elucidate brain pathophysiology--it serves both as a marker of brain vulnerability with decreased reserve and as a potential mechanism for permanent cognitive damage. As a potent indicator of patients' safety, delirium provides a target for system-wide process improvements. Public health priorities include improvements in coding, reimbursement from insurers, and research funding, and widespread education for clinicians and the public about the importance of delirium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Delirium in Hospitalized Older Adults

            A 75-year-old man is admitted for scheduled major abdominal surgery. He is functionally independent, with mild forgetfulness. His intraoperative course is uneventful, but on postoperative day 2, severe confusion and agitation develop. What is going on? How would you manage this patient’s care? Could his condition have been prevented?
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              European Society of Anaesthesiology evidence-based and consensus-based guideline on postoperative delirium.

              The purpose of this guideline is to present evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postoperative delirium. The cornerstones of the guideline are the preoperative identification and handling of patients at risk, adequate intraoperative care, postoperative detection of delirium and management of delirious patients. The scope of this guideline is not to cover ICU delirium. Considering that many medical disciplines are involved in the treatment of surgical patients, a team-based approach should be implemented into daily practice. This guideline is aimed to promote knowledge and education in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative setting not only among anaesthesiologists but also among all other healthcare professionals involved in the care of surgical patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                14 October 2020
                October 2020
                : 17
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Geriatrics Unit, León University Hospital, 24008 León, Spain; soniajimenezmola@ 123456hotmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Psychology, Sociology and Philosophy, University of León, 24071 Leon, Spain; c.requena@ 123456unileon.es
                Author notes
                Article
                ijerph-17-07467
                10.3390/ijerph17207467
                7602168
                33066516
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
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                Public health

                hospitalization, delirium, hip fracture, elderly

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