The importance of analyzing the kinetics of reactive oxygen species or related substances in vivo is increasing. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is currently a powerful method for in vivo, non-invasive analysis of oxidative stress. We have applied EPR imaging for murine renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, as a model of acute renal damage, and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-deficient mice, a model for chronic progressive renal disease. In the ischemia-reperfusion model, EPR imaging revealed that the renal radical-reducing activity showed only partial recovery when serum creatinine and BUN have recovered. In the Nrf2-deficient mice, we have revealed that the impaired antioxidant activity is brought by both Nrf2 deficiency and the aging process and may play a key role in the onset of autoimmune nephritis in this model. In addition, EPR imaging is recently being applied to the redox analysis of several nephrosis models, hypertensive rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This article summarizes the nephrological application of EPR imaging and in vivo EPR.