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      Efficacy of LAMP assay for Mycobacterial spp. detection to prevent treatment delays and onset of drug resistance: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          ABSTRACT

          Background:

          Tuberculosis (TB) remains a deadly disease affecting one-third population globally. Long turnaround time and poor sensitivity of the conventional diagnostics are the major impediments for faster diagnosis of Mycobacterial spp to prevent drug resistance. To overcome these issues, molecular diagnostics have been developed. They offer enhanced sensitivity but require sophisticated infrastructure, skilled manpower and remain expensive.

          Methods:

          In that context, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, recommended by the WHO in 2016 for TB diagnosis, sounds as a promising alternative that facilitates visual read outs. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic efficiency of LAMP for the detection of a panel of Mycobacterium spp. following PRISMA guidelines using scientific databases. From 1600 studies reported on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium spp., a selection of 30 articles were identified as eligible to meet the criteria of LAMP based diagnosis.

          Results:

          It was found that most of the studies were conducted in high disease burden nations such as India, Thailand, and Japan with sputum as the most common specimen to be used for LAMP assay. Furthermore, IS6110 gene and fluorescence-based detections ranked as the most used target and method respectively. The accuracy and precision rates mostly varied between 79.2% to 99.3% and 73.9% to 100%, respectively. Lastly, a quality assessment based on QUADAS-2 of bias and applicability was conducted.

          Conclusion:

          LAMP technology could be considered as a feasible alternative to current diagnostics considering high burden for rapid testing in low resource regions.

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          Most cited references44

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

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            Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA.

            T. Notomi (2000)
            We have developed a novel method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions. This method employs a DNA polymerase and a set of four specially designed primers that recognize a total of six distinct sequences on the target DNA. An inner primer containing sequences of the sense and antisense strands of the target DNA initiates LAMP. The following strand displacement DNA synthesis primed by an outer primer releases a single-stranded DNA. This serves as template for DNA synthesis primed by the second inner and outer primers that hybridize to the other end of the target, which produces a stem-loop DNA structure. In subsequent LAMP cycling one inner primer hybridizes to the loop on the product and initiates displacement DNA synthesis, yielding the original stem-loop DNA and a new stem-loop DNA with a stem twice as long. The cycling reaction continues with accumulation of 10(9) copies of target in less than an hour. The final products are stem-loop DNAs with several inverted repeats of the target and cauliflower-like structures with multiple loops formed by annealing between alternately inverted repeats of the target in the same strand. Because LAMP recognizes the target by six distinct sequences initially and by four distinct sequences afterwards, it is expected to amplify the target sequence with high selectivity.
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              CRISPR-Cas12–based detection of SARS-CoV-2

              An outbreak of betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 began in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19, the disease associated with infection, rapidly spread to produce a global pandemic. We report development of a rapid (<40 min), easy-to-implement and accurate CRISPR-Cas12-based lateral flow assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory swab RNA extracts. We validated our method using contrived reference samples and clinical samples from US patients, including 36 patients with COVID-19 infection and 42 patients with other viral respiratory infections. Our CRISPR-based DETECTR assay provides a visual and faster alternative to the US CDC SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR assay, with 95% positive predictive agreement and 100% negative predictive agreement.. SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples is detected in under an hour using a CRISPR-based lateral flow assay.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Target Insights
                Drug Target Insights
                DTI
                Drug Target Insights
                AboutScience
                1177-3928
                07 June 2023
                Jan-Dec 2023
                : 17 ,2023
                : 78-89
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Forensic Sciences, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram, Manesar - India
                [2 ] Department of Mathematics, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram, Manesar - India
                [3 ] Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram, Manesar - India
                [4 ] Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Bisha, Bisha - Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Corresponding authors: Amity Institute of Biotechnology Amity University Haryana Gurugram, Manesar-122413 - India saifhameed@ 123456yahoo.co.in ; drzeeshanfatima@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.33393/dti.2023.2596
                10249090
                2eacd282-a646-407f-83a7-0e33834740bf
                Copyright © 2023, The Authors

                © 2023 The Authors. This article is published by AboutScience and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).

                Commercial use is not permitted and is subject to Publisher’s permissions. Full information is available at www.aboutscience.eu

                History
                : 01 May 2023
                : 12 May 2023
                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                diagnosis,lamp,meta-analysis,mycobacteria,therapeutics,tuberculosis

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