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      The dynamic relationship between trade openness, foreign direct investment, capital formation, and industrial economic growth in China: new evidence from ARDL bounds testing approach

      Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          The objective of this research is to use annual data from 1990 to 2021 to examine the long- and short-run dynamic relationships among China’s trade openness (TRO), foreign direct investment (FDI), capital formation ( K), and industrial economic growth (IEG) using the Autoregressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) method. Firstly, the results of the ARDL co-integration tests show that there is a long-run co-integration relationship among TRO, FDI, K, and IEG. Secondly, from a path of influence perspective, both the long- and short-run relationships are almost the same. Specifically, TRO, FDI, and K all have positive effects on IEG and vice versa, which supports the feedback hypothesis. However, contrary to the short-run relationship, TRO and K have a small negative effect on IEG, but this is not statistically significant. Finally, K and TRO positively affect FDI, while FDI negatively affects K, although the effect is minimal and negligible at the 10% significance level. On the contrary, they are not statistically significant in the long run. These results support the theory that technological innovation in the trade, investment and capital system based on economic and market capital can stimulate the development of China’s industrial economy.

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          Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships

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            Co-Integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing

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              Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
                Humanit Soc Sci Commun
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2662-9992
                December 2023
                April 11 2023
                : 10
                : 1
                Article
                10.1057/s41599-023-01660-8
                2eb136e1-7bb8-49f4-b183-4ebf5d792764
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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