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      A cross-sectional study on the age-related cortical and trabecular bone changes at the femoral head in elderly female hip fracture patients

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          Abstract

          Bone is in a continuous state of remodeling whereby old bone is absorbed and new bone is formed in its place. During this process, new formations reinforce the bone in the direction of the dominant stress trajectories through a functional adaptation. In normal aging, the balance between bone resorption and formation can be shifted. How this affects the functional adaptation remains to be investigated. Furthermore, how or whether the bone continues to change beyond the age of 85 is not yet studied in detail. In this study we examined the age-related changes in the cortical and trabecular bone in old age, and assessed whether we can find evidence of the presence of functional adaptation. We measured cortical and trabecular parameters from micro-computed tomography scans of the femoral head extracted from hip fracture patients between the age of 70 and 93 years. A significant decrease in global trabecular bone mineral density (38.1%) and cortical thickness (13.0%) was seen from the 9th to the 10th decade of life. The degree of anisotropy was maintained globally as well as locally in both high and low stress regions. The local trabecular bone mineral density decreased in both high stress and low stress regions between the 9th and 10th decade of life with similar trends. This suggests that the role of functional adaptation in maintaining the bone structural integrity in old age may be limited. This study highlights the need for a controlled clinical trial examining the cause of the continued bone degradation throughout old age.

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          Most cited references25

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          Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk.

          John Kanis (2002)
          The diagnosis of osteoporosis centres on the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). Osteoporosis is defined as a BMD 2.5 SD or more below the average value for premenopausal women (T score < -2.5 SD). Severe osteoporosis denotes osteoporosis in the presence of one or more fragility fractures. The same absolute value for BMD used in women can be used in men. The recommended site for diagnosis is the proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Other sites and validated techniques, however, can be used for fracture prediction. Although hip fracture prediction with BMD alone is at least as good as blood pressure readings to predict stroke, the predictive value of BMD can be enhanced by use of other factors, such as biochemical indices of bone resorption and clinical risk factors. Clinical risk factors that contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD include age, previous fragility fracture, premature menopause, a family history of hip fracture, and the use of oral corticosteroids. In the absence of validated population screening strategies, a case finding strategy is recommended based on the finding of risk factors. Treatment should be considered in individuals subsequently shown to have a high fracture risk. Because of the many techniques available for fracture risk assessment, the 10-year probability of fracture is the desirable measurement to determine intervention thresholds. Many treatments can be provided cost-effectively to men and women if hip fracture probability over 10 years ranges from 2% to 10% dependent on age.
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            Osteoporosis

            The Lancet, 367(9527), 2010-2018
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              Age-Related Changes in Trabecular and Cortical Bone Microstructure

              The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT), imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                tristan.whitmarsh@cruk.cam.ac.uk
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                22 January 2019
                22 January 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 305
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9227 2257, GRID grid.260493.a, Imaging-based Computational Biomedicine Laboratory, , Nara Institute of Science and Technology, ; Ikoma, Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0373 3971, GRID grid.136593.b, Department of Orthopaedic Medical Engineering, , Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, ; Suita, Japan
                Article
                36299
                10.1038/s41598-018-36299-y
                6343024
                30670734
                2eb6aae2-1a2e-40cc-8ce5-c13d5e77580f
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 28 August 2018
                : 14 November 2018
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