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      ENFERMEDADES TIROIDEAS EN PERSONAS CON SÍNDROME DE DOWN EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE LA PAZ-BOLIVIA Translated title: Thyroid diseases in people with Down syndrome in the state of La Paz - Bolivia

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          Abstract

          El Síndrome de Down está asociado a varias formas de distiroidismo, el hipotiroidismo es la más común en esta población. La alteración en la función tiroidea puede aumentar la morbilidad de este síndrome, disminuyendo la calidad y expectativa de vida en estos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir el estado de la función tiroidea en pacientes con Síndrome de Down de la fundación Aywiña y la Fundación Down Bolivia, del departamento de La Paz, mediante la determinación de pruebas bioquímicas del eje tiroideo. El grupo de estudio estuvo comprendido por 30 individuos, 19 del sexo masculino y 11 del sexo femenino. Los resultados muestran un 50% de distiroidismo y la población con mayor incidencia de alteración tiroidea fueron los menores a 13 años. La principal patología fue el hipotiroidismo subclínico (24%), seguido del hipotiroidismo subclínico autoinmune. Cabe resaltar que se observó un porcentaje elevado de hipertiroidismo (13%), que es superior a lo reportado por otros autores. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre sexos. La elevada incidencia de distiroidismo hallada, sugiere que la población con Síndrome de Down del departamento de La Paz, es vulnerable a este tipo de trastornos, confirmando lo reportado en otras poblaciones. Debido a que la presencia de enfermedades tiroidea aumenta las complicaciones de este síndrome, es importante realizar controles anuales que evalúen la función tiroidea y se plantea la necesidad de contar con rangos de referencia para las pruebas bioquímicas del eje tiroideo en la población con Síndrome de Down de nuestro país.

          Translated abstract

          Down Syndrome is associated with several forms of dysthyroidism, hypothyroidism is the most common on this population. Alteration in thyroid function may increase the morbidity of this syndrome, decreasing the quality and life expectancy in these patients. The main objective of the present study was describe the state of thyroid function in patients with Down Syndrome of the Aywiña Foundation and the Down Bolivia Foundation in the department of La Paz, through the determination of biochemical tests of the thyroid axis. The target group were consisted of 30 individuals, for which 19 males and 11 females. The obtained results indicate a 50% of dysthyroidism, the population with the highest incidence of thyroid alteration were those are younger than 13 years. The main pathology was subclinical hypothyroidism (24%), followed by subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. It is noteworthy that a high percentage of hyperthyroidism (13%) was observed, which is higher than reported by other authors. Also there were no significant differences between genders. The high incidence of dysthyroidism found suggests that the population with Down Syndrome in the department of La Paz is vulnerable to this type of disorder, confirming what has been reported in other populations. Due to the presence of thyroid dysfunction increases the complications of this syndrome, it is important to perform annual tests that evaluate thyroid function and the need to have reference ranges for the biochemical tests of the thyroid axis in the population with Down Syndrome of our country.

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          Profile of Hypothyroidism in Down’s Syndrome

          Objective: Although the association between Down’s syndrome (DS) and thyroid dysfunction is well recognized, the cause of this condition is not known. Methods: Hospital records of patients with DS and hypothyroidism referred to our clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Initial thyroid hormone and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, age at admission, initial anthropometric measurements, age at the beginning of therapy, initial L-thyroxine (L-T4) doses, time to normalization of the thyroid function tests, and L-T4 dose at last visit were recorded. Thyroid ultrasound imaging was used to measure the size of the gland. Descriptive data were expressed as mean±SD values. Skewed data were shown as median and interquartile ranges (IQR). Results: There were 62 patients with DS (32 male and 30 female). Median TSH level at the first visit was 10.40 (19.4) µIU/mL and median free T4 level was 1.18 (0.43) ng/dL. There was no statistical difference in terms of age, hormone and antibody levels, thyroid volume and L-T4 doses between boys and girls. Thyroid volumes of 54 patients were measured. Only nine of these patients had a normal-sized thyroid gland. Median total thyroid volume was 0.89 (2.07) mL. Thyroid volume was negatively correlated to L-T4 dose at last visit (p=0.006, r=-0.387). Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of thyroid dysgenesis in patients with DS and hypothyroidism. This association has not been reported before. Further studies investigating the thyroid gland size in these patients need to be performed to confirm the results. Conflict of interest:None declared.
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            Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome

            Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50%) resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS.
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              Alteraciones endocrinológicas en el síndrome de Down

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rccm
                Revista Científica Ciencia Médica
                Rev Cient Cienc Méd
                Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Simón. (Cochabamba, Cochabamba, Bolivia )
                2077-3323
                2017
                : 20
                : 1
                : 11-15
                Affiliations
                [02] La Paz orgnameUniversidad Mayor de San Andrés orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Instituto de Genética Bolivia
                [03] La Paz orgnameCaja de Salud de la Banca Privada Bolivia
                [01] La Paz orgnameUniversidad Mayor de San Andrés orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas orgdiv2Instituto SELADIS Bolivia clau.h.chucatiny@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S1817-74332017000100003
                2ebc1c5c-ad30-42bb-9013-497ac9a6a083

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 15 April 2017
                : 20 June 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 13, Pages: 5
                Product

                SciELO Bolivia


                Down Syndrome,Thyroid Diseases,hypothyroidism,Síndrome de Down,Enfermedades de la Tiroides,hipotiroidismo

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