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      Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Identification and Separation of Chiral Drugs and Biomolecules

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          Abstract

          Molecularly imprinting polymers (MIPs) have been extensively applied in chromatography for the separation of chiral drugs. In this review, we mainly summarize recent developments of various MIPs used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Among them, HPLC has the advantages of straightforward operation and high selectivity. However, the low separation efficiency, due to slow interaction kinetics and heavy peak broadening, is the main challenge for the application of MIPs in HPLC. On the other hand, CEC possesses both the high selectivity of HPLC and the high efficiency of capillary electrophoresis. In CEC, electroosmotic flow is formed across the entire column and reduces the heavy peak broadening observed in HPLC mode. SFC can modify the low interaction kinetics in HPLC when supercritical fluids are utilized as mobile phases. If SFC and MIP-based CSPs can be well combined, better separation performance can be achieved. Particles, monoliths and membrane are typical formats of MIPs. Traditional MIP particles produced by bulk polymerization have been replaced by MIP particles by surface imprinting technology, which are highly consistent in size and shape. Monolithic MIPs are prepared by in situ method in a column, greatly shortening the pre-preparation time. Some novel materials, such as magnetic nanoparticles, are integrated into the MIPs to enhance the controllability and efficiency of the polymerization. This review will be helpful to guide the preparation, development, and application of MIPs in chromatographic and electrophoretic enantioseparation.

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          Recent advances in molecular imprinting technology: current status, challenges and highlighted applications.

          Molecular imprinting technology (MIT) concerns formation of selective sites in a polymer matrix with the memory of a template. Recently, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have aroused extensive attention and been widely applied in many fields, such as solid-phase extraction, chemical sensors and artificial antibodies owing to their desired selectivity, physical robustness, thermal stability, as well as low cost and easy preparation. With the rapid development of MIT as a research hotspot, it faces a number of challenges, involving biological macromolecule imprinting, heterogeneous binding sites, template leakage, incompatibility with aqueous media, low binding capacity and slow mass transfer, which restricts its applications in various aspects. This critical review briefly reviews the current status of MIT, particular emphasis on significant progresses of novel imprinting methods, some challenges and effective strategies for MIT, and highlighted applications of MIPs. Finally, some significant attempts in further developing MIT are also proposed (236 references).
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            Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Present and Future Prospective

            Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology, are robust molecular recognition elements able to mimic natural recognition entities, such as antibodies and biological receptors, useful to separate and analyze complicated samples such as biological fluids and environmental samples. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field discussing first general aspects in MIP preparation and then dealing with various application aspects. This review aims to outline the molecularly imprinted process and present a summary of principal application fields of molecularly imprinted polymers, focusing on chemical sensing, separation science, drug delivery and catalysis. Some significant aspects about preparation and application of the molecular imprinting polymers with examples taken from the recent literature will be discussed. Theoretical and experimental parameters for MIPs design in terms of the interaction between template and polymer functionalities will be considered and synthesis methods for the improvement of MIP recognition properties will also be presented.
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              Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages.

              The separation of molecules with similar size and shape is an important technological challenge. For example, rare gases can pose either an economic opportunity or an environmental hazard and there is a need to separate these spherical molecules selectively at low concentrations in air. Likewise, chiral molecules are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, but chiral enantiomers, by definition, have identical size and shape, and their separation can be challenging. Here we show that a porous organic cage molecule has unprecedented performance in the solid state for the separation of rare gases, such as krypton and xenon. The selectivity arises from a precise size match between the rare gas and the organic cage cavity, as predicted by molecular simulations. Breakthrough experiments demonstrate real practical potential for the separation of krypton, xenon and radon from air at concentrations of only a few parts per million. We also demonstrate selective binding of chiral organic molecules such as 1-phenylethanol, suggesting applications in enantioselective separation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                polymers
                Polymers
                MDPI
                2073-4360
                03 June 2016
                June 2016
                : 8
                : 6
                : 216
                Affiliations
                Nano Structural Materials Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu, China; ys_njust@ 123456163.com (S.Y.); 13770729019@ 123456163.com (Y.W.); 613116002399@ 123456njust.edu.cn (Y.J.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lishuang@ 123456njust.edu.cn (S.L.); weiliu@ 123456njust.edu.cn (W.L.); Tel.: +86-182-5197-1290 (S.L.); +86-158-9589-3206 (W.L.)
                Article
                polymers-08-00216
                10.3390/polym8060216
                6432457
                2ebc6eba-a0a8-467d-b07e-94bf251f39e4
                © 2016 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 March 2016
                : 24 May 2016
                Categories
                Article

                molecularly imprinted polymer,chiral separation,chiral drugs,chromatography

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