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      Hepatoprotective Effect of A Polyherbal Extract Containing Andrographis Paniculata, Tinospora Cordifolia and Solanum Nigrum Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of hepatic disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The combination of Andrographis paniculata ( Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia ( Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum ( Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Indian System of Medicine ( Ayurveda) for the treatment of various liver-related disorders.

          Objective:

          In the present study, an attempt was made to substantiate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

          Subjects and Methods:

          Swiss albino mice (weight 20–25 g) were used for this study. Intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, were used as indices of liver injury. In addition total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and creatinine were also assayed using the standard procedure.

          Results:

          Among the two different doses, pretreatment with Polyherbal extract at 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant ( P < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity as compared to paracetamol group.

          Conclusion:

          The polyherbal extract exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect in vivo. The study contributes to its use in traditional Ayurveda system for the management of liver diseases.

          SUMMARY

          • Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of liver disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. Combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various liver related disorders. In the present study an attempt was made to validate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Swiss albino mice (weight 20-25 g) were used for this study. Intraperitoneal injection (IP) of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Bilirubin, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP),. were used as indices of liver injury. In addition total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and creatinine were also assayed using standard procedure. Among the two different doses, pre-treatment with Polyherbal extract at 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant ( P < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity as compared to paracetamol group. The polyherbal extract exhibits significant hepatoprotective effect in vivo. The study contributes to its use in traditional Ayurveda system for the management of liver diseases.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases.

           F Stickel,  D Schuppan (2007)
          Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is widespread. Licensing regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal products are still incomplete and clearcut proof of their efficacy in liver diseases is sparse. Nevertheless, a number of herbals show promising activity including silymarin for antifibrotic treatment, phyllantus amarus in chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis, and a number of herbal combinations from China and Japan that deserve testing in appropriate studies. Apart from therapeutic properties, reports are accumulating about liver injury after the intake of herbals, including those advertised for liver diseases. Acute and/or chronic liver damage occurred after ingestion of some Chinese herbs, herbals that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, germander, greater celandine, kava, atractylis gummifera, callilepsis laureola, senna alkaloids, chaparral and many others. Since the evidence supporting the use of botanicals to treat chronic liver diseases is insufficient and only few of them are well standardised and free of potential serious side effects, most of these medications are not recommended outside clinical trials. Particularly with regard to the latter, adequately powered randomised-controlled clinical trials with well-selected end points are needed to assess the role of herbal therapy for liver diseases.
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            Review article: drug hepatotoxicity.

            Drug toxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Further understanding of hepatotoxicity is becoming increasingly important as more drugs come to market. (i) To provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of hepatotoxicity of select commonly used drug classes. (ii) To assess the safety of these medications in patients with pre-existing liver disease and in the post-liver transplant setting. (iii) To review relevant advances in toxicogenomics which contribute to the current understanding of hepatotoxic drugs. A Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'drug toxicity, hepatotoxicity, statins, thiazolidinediones, antibiotics, antiretroviral drugs and toxicogenomics'. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is one of the most frequently implicated causes of drug-induced liver injury worldwide. Statins rarely cause clinically significant liver injury, even in patients with underlying liver disease. Newer thiazolidinediones are not associated with the degree of liver toxicity observed with troglitazone. Careful monitoring for liver toxicity is warranted in patients who are taking antiretrovirals, especially patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B and C. Genetic polymorphisms among enzymes involved in drug metabolism and HLA types may account for some of the differences in individual susceptibility to drug hepatotoxicity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity will remain a problem that carries both clinical and regulatory significance as long as new drugs continue to enter the market. Future results from ongoing multicentre collaborative efforts may help contribute to our current understanding of hepatotoxicity associated with drugs.
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              LIPID METABOLISM.

               W E Lands (1964)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmacogn Mag
                Pharmacogn Mag
                PM
                Pharmacognosy Magazine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0973-1296
                0976-4062
                October 2015
                : 11
                : Suppl 3
                : S375-S379
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Herbal Medicinal Products, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow - 226 015, Uttar Pradesh, India
                [2 ]Molecular Bioprospection Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow - 226 015, Uttar Pradesh, India
                [3 ]Agrotechnology Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow - 226 015, Uttar Pradesh, India
                [4 ]Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow - 226 015, Uttar Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr. Dayanandan Mani, Department of Herbal Medicinal Products, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow - 226 015, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: drdnmani@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                PM-11-375
                10.4103/0973-1296.168945
                4745206
                26929570
                Copyright: © 2015 Pharmacognosy Magazine

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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