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      Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment Facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal Records.

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          Abstract

          In this article, the authors report the results of a large-scale field experiment conducted in New York City investigating the effects of race and a prison record on employment. Teams of black and white men were matched and sent to apply for low-wage jobs throughout the city, presenting equivalent resumés and differing only in their race and criminal background. The authors find a significant negative effect of a criminal record on employment outcomes that appears substantially larger for African Americans. The sequence of interactions preceding hiring decisions suggests that black applicants are less often invited to interview, thereby providing fewer opportunities to establish rapport with the employer. Furthermore, employers' general reluctance to discuss the criminal record of an applicant appears especially harmful for black ex-offenders. Overall, these results point to the importance of rapport-building for finding work, something that the stigmatizing characteristics of minority and criminal status make more difficult to achieve.

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          Most cited references4

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          The Mark of a Criminal Record

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            The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction

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              Incarceration and the Formation and Stability of Marital Unions

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci
                The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
                0002-7162
                0002-7162
                May 2009
                : 623
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] an associate professor of sociology and a faculty associate of the Office of Population Research at Princeton University. Her research focuses on institutions affecting racial stratification, including education, labor markets, and the criminal justice system. Her recent book, Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration (University of Chicago 2007), describes the results from a field experiment investigating the racial and economic consequences of large-scale imprisonment for contemporary U.S. labor markets.
                Article
                NIHMS439026
                10.1177/0002716208330793
                23459367
                2ec1bc6e-3390-424d-a467-390d24fc5dac

                criminal record,discrimination,employment,low-wage labor markets,race

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