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      A database of functional traits for spiders from native forests of the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia

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          Abstract

          Background

          There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences.

          New information

          We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections:

          1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and

          2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches.

          This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits.

          There is considerable debate about whether community ecology will ever produce general principles. We suggest here that this can be achieved but that community ecology has lost its way by focusing on pairwise species interactions independent of the environment. We assert that community ecology should return to an emphasis on four themes that are tied together by a two-step process: how the fundamental niche is governed by functional traits within the context of abiotic environmental gradients; and how the interaction between traits and fundamental niches maps onto the realized niche in the context of a biotic interaction milieu. We suggest this approach can create a more quantitative and predictive science that can more readily address issues of global change.
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            Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward.

            Functional diversity is a component of biodiversity that generally concerns the range of things that organisms do in communities and ecosystems. Here, we review how functional diversity can explain and predict the impact of organisms on ecosystems and thereby provide a mechanistic link between the two. Critical points in developing predictive measures of functional diversity are the choice of functional traits with which organisms are distinguished, how the diversity of that trait information is summarized into a measure of functional diversity, and that the measures of functional diversity are validated through quantitative analyses and experimental tests. There is a vast amount of trait information available for plant species and a substantial amount for animals. Choosing which traits to include in a particular measure of functional diversity will depend on the specific aims of a particular study. Quantitative methods for choosing traits and for assigning weighting to traits are being developed, but need much more work before we can be confident about trait choice. The number of ways of measuring functional diversity is growing rapidly. We divide them into four main groups. The first, the number of functional groups or types, has significant problems and researchers are more frequently using measures that do not require species to be grouped. Of these, some measure diversity by summarizing distances between species in trait space, some by estimating the size of the dendrogram required to describe the difference, and some include information about species' abundances. We show some new and important differences between these, as well as what they indicate about the responses of assemblages to loss of individuals. There is good experimental and analytical evidence that functional diversity can provide a link between organisms and ecosystems but greater validation of measures is required. We suggest that non-significant results have a range of alternate explanations that do not necessarily contradict positive effects of functional diversity. Finally, we suggest areas for development of techniques used to measure functional diversity, highlight some exciting questions that are being addressed using ideas about functional diversity, and suggest some directions for novel research.
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              Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2020
                30 April 2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, IPNA-CSIC, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, IPNA-CSIC, Tenerife Canary Islands Spain
                [2 ] Laboratory for Integrative Biodiversity Research (LIBRe), Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Laboratory for Integrative Biodiversity Research (LIBRe), Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland
                [3 ] cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e do Ambiente, Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Açores, Portugal cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e do Ambiente Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Açores Portugal
                [4 ] Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology & Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology & Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona Barcelona Spain
                [5 ] CRBA: Animal Biodiversity Resource Center, UB, Barcelona, Spain CRBA: Animal Biodiversity Resource Center, UB Barcelona Spain
                [6 ] Department of Animal Biology and Edaphology and Geology, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain Department of Animal Biology and Edaphology and Geology, University of La Laguna, Tenerife Canary Islands Spain
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Nuria Macías-Hernández ( nuria.maciashernandez@ 123456helsinki.fi ).

                Academic editor: Jeremy Miller

                Article
                49159 12040
                10.3897/BDJ.8.e49159
                7205838
                Nuria Macías-Hernández, Cândida Ramos, Marc Domènech, Sara Febles, Irene Santos, Miquel A. Arnedo, Paulo A.V. Borges, Brent C. Emerson, Pedro Cardoso

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 32
                Funding
                This study was supported by the project BIODIV ISLAND-CONT (Biodiversity drivers on islands and continents – 706482) funded by Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowships (H2020-MSCA-IF-2015) to the first author NMH. The research was additionally funded by three other projects that provided the material collected for the database: 1) the ERA-Net Net-Biome research framework, financed through Portuguese FCT-NETBIOME grant 0003/2011 (PB); 2) FCT MACDIV – FCT-PTDC/BIABIC/0054/2014 (PB, BE, PC); 3) the Organismo Autónomo de Parques Nacionales Spain (OAPN #485/2012). PC is supported by a grant from Koneen Säätiö: “Trait-Based Prediction of Extinction Risk”.
                Categories
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Biodiversity & Conservation

                araneae , ecology, forest, morphology, portugal, spain

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