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      Risk Stratification of Lung Nodules Using 3D CNN-Based Multi-task Learning

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          Abstract

          Risk stratification of lung nodules is a task of primary importance in lung cancer diagnosis. Any improvement in robust and accurate nodule characterization can assist in identifying cancer stage, prognosis, and improving treatment planning. In this study, we propose a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based nodule characterization strategy. With a completely 3D approach, we utilize the volumetric information from a CT scan which would be otherwise lost in the conventional 2D CNN based approaches. In order to address the need for a large amount for training data for CNN, we resort to transfer learning to obtain highly discriminative features. Moreover, we also acquire the task dependent feature representation for six high-level nodule attributes and fuse this complementary information via a Multi-task learning (MTL) framework. Finally, we propose to incorporate potential disagreement among radiologists while scoring different nodule attributes in a graph regularized sparse multi-task learning. We evaluated our proposed approach on one of the largest publicly available lung nodule datasets comprising 1018 scans and obtained state-of-the-art results in regressing the malignancy scores.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Learning Spatiotemporal Features with 3D Convolutional Networks

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            Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning

            Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks. In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computer-aided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance CAD systems for other medical imaging tasks.
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              Regularized multi--task learning

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2017-04-27
                Article
                1704.08797

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Accepted for publication at Information Processing in Medical Imaging (IPMI) 2017
                cs.CV cs.LG

                Computer vision & Pattern recognition, Artificial intelligence

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