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      Endothelial dysfunction in chronic renal failure: roles of lipoprotein oxidation and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

      Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

      analysis, Angina Pectoris, blood, physiopathology, Autoantibodies, Blood Pressure, C-Reactive Protein, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cholesterol, HDL, Creatinine, Cross-Sectional Studies, Cytokines, Endothelium, Vascular, physiology, Female, Fibrinogen, Humans, Adult, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Interleukin-6, Kidney Failure, Chronic, therapy, Lipoproteins, LDL, immunology, Male, Malondialdehyde, Middle Aged, Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory, Reference Values, Renal Dialysis, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, Vasodilation, von Willebrand Factor

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          Abstract

          Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but the mechanisms responsible are controversial. We investigated the relationship of two sets of candidate mechanisms-indices of LDL oxidation and markers of inflammatory activity-with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). We carried out cross-sectional analysis of 23 dialysed and 16 non-dialysed CRF patients, 28 healthy controls, and 20 patients with stable angina and normal renal function. The following were determined: (i) LDL oxidation by Cu(2+) and ultraviolet light, serum autoantibodies to oxidized LDL (oxLDL); (ii) forearm flow-mediated vasodilatation, plasma concentrations of adhesion molecules, and von Willebrand factor (vWF); and (iii) circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) was lower in angina, pre-dialysis, and dialysis CRF patients than in controls (all P<0.005). Compared with controls, vWf (P<0.005) and adhesion molecules (vCAM-1, P<0.005; iCAM-1, P=0.01; E-selectin, P=0.05) were raised in dialysis, and vCAM-1 (P=0.01) in pre-dialysis CRF patients. Dialysed patients had lower HDL cholesterol (P=0.01) and higher triglyceride (P=0.05) than controls, but LDL-oxidation was similar in all groups. Autoantibodies to oxLDL were raised in angina (P<0.005) and pre-dialysis (P=0.006), but were absent in most dialysed patients. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, CRP and fibrinogen were elevated in CRF compared with control and angina patients (P<0.005). In the whole population, IL-6 and TNF-alpha correlated negatively with EDV, HDL cholesterol, and positively with triglyceride, blood pressure, vWf, iCAM-1, vCAM-1 and E-selectin (r=-0.43 to +0.70, all P<0.05). Endothelial dysfunction is unrelated to LDL oxidation, suggesting that LDL oxidation might not be a major cause of VED in CRF. In contrast VED was more severe in CRF than in angina patients and is associated with increased acute-phase proteins and plasma cytokines, demonstrating a chronic inflammatory state. These observations may explain the VED and increased IHD risk of patients with CRF.

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          Most cited references 25

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          C-Reactive protein, a sensitive marker of inflammation, predicts future risk of coronary heart disease in initially healthy middle-aged men: results from the MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Augsburg Cohort Study, 1984 to 1992.

          Inflammatory reactions in coronary plaques play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute atherothrombotic events; inflammation elsewhere is also associated with both atherogenesis generally and its thrombotic complications. Recent studies indicate that systemic markers of inflammation can identify subjects at high risk of coronary events. We used a sensitive immunoradiometric assay to examine the association of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) with the incidence of first major coronary heart disease (CHD) event in 936 men 45 to 64 years of age. The subjects, who were sampled at random from the general population, participated in the first MONICA Augsburg survey (1984 to 1985) and were followed for 8 years. There was a positive and statistically significant unadjusted relationship, which was linear on the log-hazards scale, between CRP values and the incidence of CHD events (n=53). The hazard rate ratio (HRR) of CHD events associated with a 1-SD increase in log-CRP level was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2. 17). After adjustment for age, the HRR was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2. 08). Adjusting further for smoking behavior, the only variable selected from a variety of potential confounders by a forward stepping process with a 5% change in the relative risk of CRP as the selection criterion, yielded an HRR of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.97). These results confirm the prognostic relevance of CRP, a sensitive systemic marker of inflammation, to the risk of CHD in a large, randomly selected cohort of initially healthy middle-aged men. They suggest that low-grade inflammation is involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, especially its thrombo-occlusive complications.
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            Circulating adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in carotid atherosclerosis and incident coronary heart disease cases: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study.

            Recruitment of circulating leukocytes at sites of atherosclerosis is mediated through a family of adhesion molecules. The function of circulating forms of these adhesion molecules remains unknown, but their levels may serve as molecular markers of subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD). To determine the ability of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to serve as molecular markers of atherosclerosis and predictors of incident CHD, we studied 204 patients with incident CHD, 272 patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA), and 316 control subjects from the large, biracial Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. Levels of VCAM-1 were not significantly different among the patients with incident CHD, those with CAA, and control subjects. Higher levels of E-selectin and ICAM-1 were observed for the patients with CHD (means [ng/mL]: E-selectin, 38.4; ICAM-1, 288.7) and those with CAA (E-selectin, 41.5; ICAM-1, 283.6) compared with the control subjects (E-selectin, 32.8; ICAM-1, 244.2), but the distributions were not notably different between the patients with CHD and CAA. Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that the relationship of ICAM-1 and E-selectin with CHD and CAA was independent of other known CHD risk factors and was most pronounced in the highest quartile. The odds of CHD and CAA were 5.53 (95% CI, 2.51-12.21) and 2.64 (95% CI, 1.40-5.01), respectively, for those with levels of ICAM-1 in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile. Odds of CAA were 2.03 (95% CI, 1.14-3.62) for those with levels of E-selectin in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile. These data indicate that plasma levels of ICAM-1 and E-selectin may serve as molecular markers for atherosclerosis and the development of CHD.
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              Endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic arteries of asymptomatic subjects relates to coronary risk factors and their interaction.

              This study attempted to assess whether coronary risk factors are associated with endothelial dysfunction in the systemic arteries of asymptomatic men and women. Endothelial dysfunction is present in adults with established atherosclerosis. It is not known whether risk factors interact to produce endothelial dysfunction in clinically well subjects early in the natural history. Using high resolution ultrasound, we measured arterial diameter at rest, after reactive hyperemia (with increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator). Arterial responses were studied noninvasively in 500 clinically well, nonhypertensive subjects (252 men, 248 women; mean [+/- SD] age 36 +/- 15 years, range 5 to 73), including 179 current and former smokers. The superficial femoral artery was studied in 46 subjects and the brachial artery in 454. Flow-mediated dilation ranged from -1% to +17%. All arteries dilated in response to administration of nitroglycerin (17 +/- 6%), suggesting an abnormality of endothelial function in subjects with impaired flow-mediated dilation. On univariate analysis, reduced flow-mediated dilation was significantly related to hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, higher blood pressure, male gender, older age, family history of premature vascular disease and larger vessel size (p < 0.01). By multiple stepwise regression analysis, reduced flow-mediated dilation was independently associated with cigarette smoking, older age, male gender and larger vessel size (p < 0.005) but not with total cholesterol level, blood pressure or family history. A composite risk factor score was independently related to flow-mediated dilation (r = -0.30, p < 0.0001), suggesting risk factor interaction. Loss of endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic arteries occurs in the preclinical phase of vascular disease and is associated with interaction of the same risk factors known to predispose to atherosclerosis and its complications in later life.
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