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      In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of milks, yoghurts, fermented milks and cheeses: a narrative review of evidence

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      Nutrition Research Reviews

      Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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          Abstract

          The antioxidant potential (AP) is an important nutritional property of foods, as increased oxidative stress is involved in most diet-related chronic diseases. In dairy products, the protein fraction contains antioxidant activity, especially casein. Other antioxidants include: antioxidant enzymes; lactoferrin; conjugated linoleic acid; coenzyme Q 10; vitamins C, E, A and D 3; equol; uric acid; carotenoids; and mineral activators of antioxidant enzymes. The AP of dairy products has been extensively studied in vitro, with few studies in animals and human subjects. Available in vivo studies greatly differ in their design and objectives. Overall, on a 100 g fresh weight-basis, AP of dairy products is close to that of grain-based foods and vegetable or fruit juices. Among dairy products, cheeses present the highest AP due to their higher protein content. AP of milk increases during digestion by up to 2·5 times because of released antioxidant peptides. AP of casein is linked to specific amino acids, whereas β-lactoglobulin thiol groups play a major role in the AP of whey. Thermal treatments such as ultra-high temperature processing have no clear effect on the AP of milk. Raw fat-rich milks have higher AP than less fat-rich milk, because of lipophilic antioxidants. Probiotic yoghurts and fermented milks have higher AP than conventional yoghurt and milk because proteolysis by probiotics releases antioxidant peptides. Among the probiotics, Lactobacillus casei/acidophilus leads to the highest AP. The data are insufficient for cheese, but fermentation-based changes appear to make a positive impact on AP. In conclusion, AP might participate in the reported dairy product-protective effects against some chronic diseases.

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          Most cited references 110

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          The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.

          A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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            Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

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              Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States.

              Both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as a peroxyl radical generator on over 100 different kinds of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, dried fruits, spices, cereals, infant, and other foods. Most of the foods were collected from four different regions and during two different seasons in U.S. markets. Total phenolics of each sample were also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Hydrophilic ORAC(FL) values (H-ORAC(FL)) ranged from 0.87 to 2641 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g among all of the foods, whereas lipophilic ORAC(FL) values (L-ORAC(FL)) ranged from 0.07 to 1611 micromol of TE/g. Generally, L-ORAC(FL) values were <10% of the H-ORAC(FL) values except for a very few samples. Total antioxidant capacity was calculated by combining L-ORAC(FL) and H-ORAC(FL). Differences of ORAC(FL) values in fruits and vegetables from different seasons and regions were relatively large for some foods but could not be analyzed in detail because of the sampling scheme. Two different processing methods, cooking and peeling, were used on selected foods to evaluate the impact of processing on ORAC(FL). The data demonstrated that processing can have significant effects on ORAC(FL). Considering all of the foods analyzed, the relationship between TP and H-ORAC(FL) showed a very weak correlation. Total hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity intakes were calculated to be 5558 and 166 micromol of TE/day, respectively, on the basis of data from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Nutrition Research Reviews
                Nutr. Res. Rev.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0954-4224
                1475-2700
                June 2018
                October 2 2017
                June 2018
                : 31
                : 01
                : 52-70
                Article
                10.1017/S0954422417000191
                © 2018

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