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      Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

      * , 1
      Future Science OA
      Future Science Ltd
      antibody, cancer immunotherapy, oncovirus, plant virus nanoparticle, transgenic plant

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          Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus nanoparticles are described, and examples are provided. The review ends with a discussion of the implications of plant-based cancer immunotherapy for developing countries.

          Lay abstract:

          Cancer immunotherapy has made great strides over recent years. This review describes the use of plants as production systems to produce biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines and antibodies to treat a wide variety of cancers. The use of nanoparticle technology based on plant viruses as a novel strategy to target and combat cancers is also included. The review concludes with a discussion of plant production platforms and their relevance for the generation of cheap and effective cancer immunotherapies for developing countries.

          Most cited references90

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          Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008.

          Recent estimates of global cancer incidence and survival were used to update previous figures of limited duration prevalence to the year 2008. The number of patients with cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 who were still alive at the end of 2008 in the adult population is described by world region, country and the human development index. The 5-year global cancer prevalence is estimated to be 28.8 million in 2008. Close to half of the prevalence burden is in areas of very high human development that comprise only one-sixth of the world's population. Breast cancer continues to be the most prevalent cancer in the vast majority of countries globally; cervix cancer is the most prevalent cancer in much of Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia and prostate cancer dominates in North America, Oceania and Northern and Western Europe. Stomach cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Eastern Asia (including China); oral cancer ranks as the most prevalent cancer in Indian men and Kaposi sarcoma has the highest 5-year prevalence among men in 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The methods used to estimate point prevalence appears to give reasonable results at the global level. The figures highlight the need for long-term care targeted at managing patients with certain very frequently diagnosed cancer forms. To be of greater relevance to cancer planning, the estimation of other time-based measures of global prevalence is warranted. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
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            In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

            Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The “in situ vaccination” immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic anti-tumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic anti-tumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity, and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the anti-tumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic anti-tumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.
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              Immunotherapy: past, present and future.


                Author and article information

                Future Sci OA
                Future Sci OA
                Future Science OA
                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                August 2017
                12 July 2017
                : 3
                : 3
                : FSO217
                [1 ]Department of Food Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
                Author notes
                *Author for correspondence: klh22@ 123456cornell.edu
                © Kathleen Hefferon

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

                : 14 March 2017
                : 06 April 2017

                antibody,cancer immunotherapy,oncovirus,plant virus nanoparticle,transgenic plant


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