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Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

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      Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (<12 month) experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts.

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      Minority stress and mental health in gay men.

      This study describes stress as derived from minority status and explores its effect on psychological distress in gay men. The concept of minority stress is based on the premise that gay people in a heterosexist society are subjected to chronic stress related to their stigmatization. Minority stressors were conceptualized as: internalized homophobia, which relates to gay men's direction of societal negative attitudes toward the self; stigma, which relates to expectations of rejection and discrimination; and actual experiences of discrimination and violence. The mental health effects of the three minority stressors were tested in a community sample of 741 New York City gay men. The results supported minority stress hypotheses: each of the stressors had a significant independent association with a variety of mental health measures. Odds ratios suggested that men who had high levels of minority stress were twice to three times as likely to suffer also from high levels of distress.
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        Association of co-occurring psychosocial health problems and increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among urban men who have sex with men.

        We measured the extent to which a set of psychosocial health problems have an additive effect on increasing HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a cross-sectional household probability telephone sample of MSM in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco. Psychosocial health problems are highly intercorrelated among urban MSM. Greater numbers of health problems are significantly and positively associated with high-risk sexual behavior and HIV infection. AIDS prevention among MSM has overwhelmingly focused on sexual risk alone. Other health problems among MSM not only are important in their own right, but also may interact to increase HIV risk. HIV prevention might become more effective by addressing the broader health concerns of MSM while also focusing on sexual risks.
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          Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men.

          Risk factors for HIV acquisition were examined in a recent cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM). A longitudinal analysis of 4295 HIV-negative MSM enrolled in a randomized behavioral intervention trial conducted in six US cities. MSM were enrolled and assessed for HIV infection and risk behaviors semi-annually, up to 48 months. In multivariate analysis, men reporting four or more male sex partners, unprotected receptive anal intercourse with any HIV serostatus partners and unprotected insertive anal intercourse with HIV-positive partners were at increased risk of HIV infection, as were those reporting amphetamine or heavy alcohol use and alcohol or drug use before sex. Some depression symptoms and occurrence of gonorrhea also were independently associated with HIV infection. The attributable fractions of high number of male partners, use of alcohol or drugs before sex, and unprotected receptive anal intercourse with unknown status partners and the same with presumed negative partners accounted for 32.3, 29.0, 28.4 and 21.6% of infections, respectively. The challenge is to develop strategies to identify men in need. Interventions are needed to help men reduce their number of sexual partners, occurrences of unprotected anal intercourse, alcohol or drug use before sex and address other mental health issues.

            Author and article information

            Rollins School of Public Health, Hubert Department of Global Health, Atlanta, Georgia
            Author notes
            Address for Correspondence: Rob Stephenson, PhD. Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, #722, Atlanta, GA 30322. Email: rbsteph@ .
            West J Emerg Med
            West J Emerg Med
            Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
            Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine
            August 2013
            : 14
            : 4
            : 316-323
            © 2013 Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine
            Pages: 8
            Violence Assessment and Prevention
            Original Research

            Emergency medicine & Trauma


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