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      Differential control of immune cell homeostasis by Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in murine peripheral lymph nodes and spleen

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          Abstract

          Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) hamper efficient immune responses to tumors and chronic infections. Therefore, depletion of Foxp3 + Tregs has been proposed as therapeutic option to boost immune responses and to improve vaccinations. Although Treg-mediated control of T cell homeostasis is well established, Foxp3 + Treg interaction with other immune cell subsets is only incompletely understood. Thus, the present study aimed at examining dynamic effects of experimental Foxp3 + Treg depletion on a broad range of immune cell subsets, including B cells, natural killer cells, and myeloid cells. Striking differences were observed when peripheral lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were compared. B cells, for example, showed a massive and long-lasting accumulation only in LN but not in spleen of transiently Treg-depleted mice. In contrast, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, which are potent inducers of T cell responses, also accumulated selectively, but only transiently in LN, suggesting that this cell population is under very strict control of Foxp3 + Tregs. In summary, the observations described here provide insights into the dynamics of immune cells after selective depletion of Foxp3 + Tregs. This will allow a better prediction of the impact of Treg ablation in translational studies that aim at boosting immune responses and vaccinations.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self.

          Naturally arising CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells actively maintain immunological self-tolerance. Deficiency in or dysfunction of these cells can be a cause of autoimmune disease. A reduction in their number or function can also elicit tumor immunity, whereas their antigen-specific population expansion can establish transplantation tolerance. They are therefore a good target for designing ways to induce or abrogate immunological tolerance to self and non-self antigens.
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            Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease

            The scurfy mutant mouse strain suffers from a fatal lymphoproliferative disease leading to early death within 3–4 wk of age. A frame-shift mutation of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3 has been identified as the molecular cause of this multiorgan autoimmune disease. Foxp3 is a central control element in the development and function of regulatory T cells (T reg cells), which are necessary for the maintenance of self-tolerance. However, it is unclear whether dysfunction or a lack of T reg cells is etiologically involved in scurfy pathogenesis and its human correlate, the IPEX syndrome. We describe the generation of bacterial artificial chromosome–transgenic mice termed “depletion of regulatory T cell” (DEREG) mice expressing a diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein under the control of the foxp3 gene locus, allowing selective and efficient depletion of Foxp3+ T reg cells by DT injection. Ablation of Foxp3+ T reg cells in newborn DEREG mice led to the development of scurfy-like symptoms with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, insulitis, and severe skin inflammation. Thus, these data provide experimental evidence that the absence of Foxp3+ T reg cells is indeed sufficient to induce a scurfy-like phenotype. Furthermore, DEREG mice will allow a more precise definition of the function of Foxp3+ T reg cells in immune reactions in vivo.
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              Microbial stimulation fully differentiates monocytes to DC-SIGN/CD209(+) dendritic cells for immune T cell areas.

              Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen-presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. It is not yet established if the large reservoir of monocytes can develop into cells with critical features of DCs in vivo. We now show that fully differentiated monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) develop in mice and DC-SIGN/CD209a marks the cells. Mo-DCs are recruited from blood monocytes into lymph nodes by lipopolysaccharide and live or dead gram-negative bacteria. Mobilization requires TLR4 and its CD14 coreceptor and Trif. When tested for antigen-presenting function, Mo-DCs are as active as classical DCs, including cross-presentation of proteins and live gram-negative bacteria on MHC I in vivo. Fully differentiated Mo-DCs acquire DC morphology and localize to T cell areas via L-selectin and CCR7. Thus the blood monocyte reservoir becomes the dominant presenting cell in response to select microbes, yielding DC-SIGN(+) cells with critical functions of DCs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 September 2014
                : 4
                : 3
                : 147-155
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124, Braunschweig, Germany
                [ 2 ] Bioinformatics and Statistics, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
                [ 3 ] Systems Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] +49 531 61813310, +49 531 61813399, Jochen.Huehn@ 123456helmholtz-hzi.de
                Article
                1
                10.1556/EUJMI-D-14-00022
                Categories
                Original Paper

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