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      Resveratrol provides neuroprotection by regulating the JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway after stroke in rats

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          Abstract

          Ischemic stroke is a common disease with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. One of the important pathophysiological effects of ischemic stroke is apoptosis. A neuroprotective effect is defined as the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis to rescue or delay the infarction in the surviving ischemic penumbra. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that reportedly prevents cerebral ischemia injury by regulating the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and to investigate the signaling pathways and mechanisms through which resveratrol regulates apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. Cerebral infarct volume was measured using 2% TTC staining. TUNEL staining was conducted to evaluate neuronal apoptosis. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the proteins involved in the JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The results suggested that resveratrol significantly improved neurological function, reduced cerebral infarct volume, decreased neuronal damage, and markedly attenuated neuronal apoptosis; these effects were attenuated by the inhibition of PI3K/AKT with LY294002 and JAK2/STAT3 with AG490. We also found that resveratrol significantly upregulated the expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, p-AKT, p-mTOR, and BCL-2 and downregulated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and BAX, which was partially reversed by LY294002 and AG490. These results suggested that resveratrol provides a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is partially mediated by the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Resveratrol may indirectly upregulate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by activating JAK2/STAT3.

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          Most cited references38

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          Class I PI3K in oncogenic cellular transformation.

          L. Zhao, P Vogt (2008)
          Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a dimeric enzyme, consisting of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit. The catalytic subunit occurs in four isoforms designated as p110 alpha, p110 beta, p110 gamma and p110 delta. These isoforms combine with several regulatory subunits; for p110 alpha, beta and delta, the standard regulatory subunit is p85, for p110 gamma, it is p101. PI3Ks play important roles in human cancer. PIK3CA, the gene encoding p110 alpha, is mutated frequently in common cancers, including carcinoma of the breast, prostate, colon and endometrium. Eighty percent of these mutations are represented by one of the three amino-acid substitutions in the helical or kinase domains of the enzyme. The mutant p110 alpha shows a gain of function in enzymatic and signaling activity and is oncogenic in cell culture and in animal model systems. Structural and genetic data suggest that the mutations affect regulatory inter- and intramolecular interactions and support the conclusion that there are at least two molecular mechanisms for the gain of function in p110 alpha. One of these mechanisms operates largely independently of binding to p85, the other abolishes the requirement for an interaction with Ras. The non-alpha isoforms of p110 do not show cancer-specific mutations. However, they are often differentially expressed in cancer and, in contrast to p110 alpha, wild-type non-alpha isoforms of p110 are oncogenic when overexpressed in cell culture. The isoforms of p110 have become promising drug targets. Isoform-selective inhibitors have been identified. Inhibitors that target exclusively the cancer-specific mutants of p110 alpha constitute an important goal and challenge for current drug development.
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            Resveratrol provides neuroprotection by inhibiting phosphodiesterases and regulating the cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 pathway after stroke in rats.

            Dysfunction of energy metabolism can be a significant and fundamental pathophysiological basis for strokes. In studies of both humans and rodents, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, has been reported to provide protection from cerebral ischemic injury by regulating expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). However, direct evidence demonstrating that resveratrol exerts neuroprotection from cerebral ischemia injury by decreasing energy consumption is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms and signaling pathways through which resveratrol regulates energy metabolism in the ischemic brain, and to identify potential targets of resveratrol. ATP levels in brain tissues were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. SIRT1 and the phosphorylation of adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK) expressiones were evaluated by western blot. Levels of phosphodiesterase (PDEs) and cAMP were quantitated by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that resveratrol significantly reduced the harmful effects of cerebral ischemic injury in vivo. Moreover, levels of ATP, p-AMPK, SIRT1, and cAMP were increased by resveratrol and PDE inhibitors. In conclusion, our findings indicate that resveratrol provides neuroprotection by inhibiting PDEs and regulating the cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 pathway, which reduces ATP energy consumption during ischemia.
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              miR-19b enhances proliferation and apoptosis resistance via the EGFR signaling pathway by targeting PP2A and BIM in non-small cell lung cancer

              Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations enable constitutive active downstream signaling of PI3K/AKT, KRAS/ERK and JAK/STAT pathways, and promote tumor progression by inducing uncontrolled proliferation, evasion of apoptosis and migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, such EGFR mutations increase the susceptibility of patients with NSCLC to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, but treated patients will invariably relapse with resistant disease. A global understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms of EGFR signaling may improve the management of NSCLC patients. Methods microarray analysis was performed to identify PI3K/AKT-regulated miRNAs. Phosphoproteomic analysis and cell based assays were performed using NSCLC cell lines lentivirally transduced with anti-miR or miR overexpressing constructs. Results Here, we show that 17 miRNAs including members of the miR-17~ 92 cluster are dysregulated following PI3K/AKT inhibition of EGFR mutant NSCLC cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that dysregulated miRNAs act in a concerted manner to enhance the activity of the EGFR signaling pathway. These findings were closely mirrored by attenuation of miR-17~ 92 family member miR-19b in NSCLC cell lines which resulted in reduced phosphorylation of ERK, AKT and STAT and effector proteins in EGFR mutant NSCLC cells. Consistent with this finding, cell cycle progression, clonogenic growth and migration were reduced and apoptosis was enhanced. Co-treatment of NSCLC cells with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib and anti-miR-19b construct reduced migration and clonogenic growth in a synergistic manner suggesting that EGFR and miR-19b act together to control oncogenic processes. Serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A subunit PPP2R5E and BCL2L11 encoding BIM were identified as major targets of miR-19b by target validation assays. Consistent with this finding, PP2A activity was strongly enhanced in NSCLC transduced with anti-miR-19b construct, but not in cells co-transduced with anti-miR-19b and shPPP2R5E, suggesting that PPP2R5E is a major constituent of the PP2A complex. Accordingly, enhanced proliferation by miR-19b was due to targeting PPP2R5E. In contrast, apoptosis resistance was mainly due to targeting BCL2L11. Conclusion Our results provide insight into the importance of targeting PPP2R5E and BCL2L11 by miR-19b in oncogenic processes of NSCLC. Attenuation of miR-19b expression could potentially be exploited in adjuvant therapy of EGFR mutant NSCLC. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12943-018-0781-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                15 June 2018
                September 2018
                15 June 2018
                : 5
                : 3
                : 245-255
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pathology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
                [b ]Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
                [c ]Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China. 1354628664@ 123456qq.com
                Article
                S2352-3042(18)30027-8
                10.1016/j.gendis.2018.06.001
                6176158
                30320189
                2ef3eb6e-a398-4fe4-bc3b-510dcc617fd3
                © 2018 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 22 February 2018
                : 5 June 2018
                Categories
                Article

                akt,ischemic penumbra,mtor,resveratrol,stat3,stroke
                akt, ischemic penumbra, mtor, resveratrol, stat3, stroke

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