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      Perforación duodenal post-CPRE de manejo no quirúrgico: reporte de un caso Translated title: A Case Report of Non-Surgical Duodenal Perforation Following ERCP

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          Abstract

          Resumen La perforación duodenal posterior a la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) es una complicación infrecuente que sucede en un 0,1%-0,6% de los casos. El manejo (quirúrgico o no quirúrgico) depende de varios factores. Presentamos el caso de una mujer que sufrió una perforación duodenal post-CPRE manejada conservadoramente con un stent biliar metálico autoexpandible (SMAE) totalmente recubierto y antibióticos, quien no requirió manejo quirúrgico.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Post-ERCP duodenal perforations occur in only 0.1 to 0.6% of ERCP cases. Whether these occurrences are managed with or without surgery depends on several factors. We report the case of a woman who had a post-ERCP duodenal perforation that was conservatively managed with a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS) and antibiotics who did not require surgical management.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Risk factors for complications after ERCP: a multivariate analysis of 11,497 procedures over 12 years.

          Complications of ERCP are an important concern. We sought to determine predictors of post-ERCP complications at our institution. GI TRAC is a comprehensive data set of patients who underwent ERCP at our institution from 1994 through 2006. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate 4 categories of complications: (1) overall complications, (2) pancreatitis, (3) bleeding, and (4) severe or fatal complications. Independent predictors of complications were determined with multivariable logistic regression. A total of 11,497 ERCP procedures were analyzed. There were 462 complications (4.0%), 42 of which were severe (0.36%) and 7 were fatal (0.06%). Specific complications of pancreatitis (2.6%) and bleeding (0.3%) were identified. Overall complications were statistically more likely among individuals with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) (odds ratio [OR] 1.91) and after a biliary sphincterotomy (OR 1.32). Subjects with a history of acute or chronic pancreatitis (OR 0.78) or who received a temporary small-caliber pancreatic stent (OR 0.69) had fewer complications. Post-ERCP pancreatitis was more likely to occur after a pancreatogram via the major papilla (OR 1.70) or minor papilla (OR 1.54) and among subjects with suspected SOD with stent placement (OR 1.45) or without stent placement (OR 1.84). Individuals undergoing biliary-stent exchange had less-frequent pancreatitis (OR 0.38). Biliary sphincterotomy was associated with bleeding (OR 4.71). Severe or fatal complications were associated with severe (OR 2.38) and incapacitating (OR 7.65) systemic disease, obesity (OR 5.18), known or suspected bile-duct stones (OR 4.08), pancreatic manometry (OR 3.57), and complex (grade 3) procedures (OR 2.86). This study characterizes a large series of ERCP procedures from a single institution and outlines the incidence and predictors of complications.
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            Management of duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy.

             R Selby,  M Stapfer,  S. Stain (2000)
            To evaluate the authors' experience with periduodenal perforations to define a systematic management approach. Traditionally, traumatic and atraumatic duodenal perforations have been managed surgically; however, in the last decade, management has shifted toward a more selective approach. Some authors advocate routine nonsurgical management, but the reported death rate of medical treatment failures is almost 50%. Others advocate mandatory surgical exploration. Those who favor a selective approach have not elaborated distinct management guidelines. A retrospective chart review at the authors' medical center from June 1993 to June 1998 identified 14 instances of periduodenal perforation related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a rate of 1.0%. Charts were reviewed for the following parameters: ERCP findings, clinical presentation of perforation, diagnostic methods, time to diagnosis, radiographic extent and location of duodenal leak, methods of management, surgical procedures, complications, length of stay, and outcome. Fourteen patients had a periduodenal perforation. Eight patients were initially managed conservatively. Five of the eight patients recovered without incident. Three patients failed nonsurgical management and required extensive procedures with long hospital stays and one death. Six patients were managed initially by surgery, with one death. Each injury was evaluated for location and radiographic extent of leak and classified into types I through IV. Clinical and radiographic features of ERCP-related periduodenal perforations can be used to stratify patients into surgical or nonsurgical cohorts. A selective management scheme is proposed based on the features of each type.
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              Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.

              This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic perforation after an endoscopic procedure should be carefully evaluated and documented, possibly with a computed tomography (CT) scan, in order to prevent any diagnostic delay. 4 ESGE recommends that endoscopic closure should be considered depending on the type of perforation, its size, and the endoscopist expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical consultation are recommended.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rcg
                Revista Colombiana de Gastroenterologia
                Rev Col Gastroenterol
                Asociación Colombiana de Gastroenterología (Bogotá, , Colombia )
                0120-9957
                September 2017
                : 32
                : 3
                : 287-291
                Affiliations
                Bogotá orgnameClínica Universitaria Colombia Colombia gustavoareyes@ 123456hotmail.com
                Bogotá orgnameClínica Universitaria Colombia Colombia electrónico: wilmartin16@ 123456yahoo.com
                Bogotá orgnameFundación Universitaria Sánitas Colombia rgprietoo@ 123456hotmail.com
                Bogotá orgnameClínica Universitaria Colombia Colombia gerenbogota@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S0120-99572017000300287
                10.22516/25007440.162

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 18, Pages: 5
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