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Long-term results of intensity-modulated radiotherapy with three dose-fractionation regimens for localized prostate cancer

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      We evaluated long-term outcomes of three protocols of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. Between 2005 and 2014, 348 patients were treated with 5-field IMRT. The first 74 patients were treated with a daily fraction of 2.0 Gy to 74 Gy (low-risk prostate cancer) or 78 Gy (intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer); then 101 patients were treated with 2.1-Gy daily fractions to 73.5 or 77.7 Gy. More recently, 173 patients were treated with 2.2-Gy fractions to 72.6 or 74.8 Gy. The median age of all patients was 70 years and the median follow-up period was 82 months. The median follow-up periods were 124 months in the 2.0-Gy group, 98 months in the 2.1-Gy group, and 69 months in the 2.2-Gy group. The overall and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure-free survival (PSA-FFS) rates were, respectively, 89 and 68% at 10 years for the 2.0-Gy group, 91 and 84% at 8 years for the 2.1-Gy group, and 93 and 92% at 6 years for the 2.2-Gy group. The PSA-FFS rate for high-risk patients in all groups was 80% at 7 years. The cumulative incidences of Grade ≥2 late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were, respectively, 7.2 and 12.4% at 10 years for the 2.0-Gy group, 7.4 and 14.1% at 8 years for the 2.1-Gy group, and 7.1 and 7.9% at 6 years for the 2.2-Gy group. All three fractionation schedules yielded good tumor control with acceptable toxicities.

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      Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

       Y Kanda (2012)
      Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website ( and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.
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        Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

        Interstitial radiation (implant) therapy is used to treat clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate, but how it compares with other treatments is not known. To estimate control of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiation (RT), or implant with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Retrospective cohort study of outcome data compared using Cox regression multivariable analyses. A total of 1872 men treated between January 1989 and October 1997 with an RP (n = 888) or implant with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (n = 218) at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, or RT (n = 766) at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy, Boston, Mass, were enrolled. Actuarial freedom from PSA failure (defined as PSA outcome). The relative risk (RR) of PSA failure in low-risk patients (stage T1c, T2a and PSA level 10 and 20 ng/mL or Gleason score > or =8) treated with implant compared with RP were 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5-6.1) and 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.0), respectively. The addition of androgen deprivation to implant therapy did not improve PSA outcome in high-risk patients but resulted in a PSA outcome that was not statistically different compared with the results obtained using RP or RT in intermediate-risk patients. These results were unchanged when patients were stratified using the traditional rankings of biopsy Gleason scores of 2 through 4 vs 5 through 6 vs 7 vs 8 through 10. Low-risk patients had estimates of 5-year PSA outcome after treatment with RP, RT, or implant with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation that were not statistically different, whereas intermediate- and high-risk patients treated with RP or RT did better then those treated by implant. Prospective randomized trials are needed to verify these findings.
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          Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference.

          In 1996 the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) sponsored a Consensus Conference to establish a definition of biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The ASTRO definition defined prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure as occurring after three consecutive PSA rises after a nadir with the date of failure as the point halfway between the nadir date and the first rise or any rise great enough to provoke initiation of therapy. This definition was not linked to clinical progression or survival; it performed poorly in patients undergoing hormonal therapy (HT), and backdating biased the Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival. A second Consensus Conference was sponsored by ASTRO and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group in Phoenix, Arizona, on January 21, 2005, to revise the ASTRO definition. The panel recommended: (1) a rise by 2 ng/mL or more above the nadir PSA be considered the standard definition for biochemical failure after EBRT with or without HT; (2) the date of failure be determined "at call" (not backdated). They recommended that investigators be allowed to use the ASTRO Consensus Definition after EBRT alone (no hormonal therapy) with strict adherence to guidelines as to "adequate follow-up." To avoid the artifacts resulting from short follow-up, the reported date of control should be listed as 2 years short of the median follow-up. For example, if the median follow-up is 5 years, control rates at 3 years should be cited. Retaining a strict version of the ASTRO definition would allow comparisons with a large existing body of literature.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
            [2 ]Department of Radiology, Fujieda Heisei Memorial Hospital, 123-1 Mizukami, Fujieda, Shizuoka, Japan
            [3 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanbu Tokushukai Hospital, 171-1 Hokama, Yaese-cho, Shimajiri-gun, Okinawa, Japan
            [4 ]Department of Radiology, Narita Memorial Hospital, 134 Haneihonmachi, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan
            [5 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1–1-1 Hirate-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
            Author notes
            Corresponding author. Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 467–8601, Japan. Tel: +81-52-853-8274; Fax: +81-52-852-5244; Email: gmst124i@
            J Radiat Res
            J. Radiat. Res
            Journal of Radiation Research
            Oxford University Press
            March 2019
            19 December 2018
            19 December 2018
            : 60
            : 2
            : 221-227
            30566649 6430249 10.1093/jrr/rry089 rry089
            © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Pages: 7
            Regular Paper


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