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      Modifiable Factors and Colon Cancer Risk in Thai Population

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          To demonstrate the possible impact of modifiable factors on colon cancer development in Thai population, we conducted this case-control study from June 2016 until June 2017. The study was conducted in 11 Thai provincial hospitals. The hospitals in this study were selected by stratification by regions. Patients included 504 ones who were newly diagnosed with colon cancer within 1 month. In the control group, 997 health individuals were enrolled. Both case and control were adjusted by age. The results of this study showed that age and socioeconomic factors were associated with colon cancer risk. In addition, it was found that family history of colon cancer had very high association with colon cancer risk. Behavioral factors, including smoking, inadequate physical exercise, and salty food consumption were associated with colon cancer. We detected no association between obesity, alcohol consumption, and colon cancer. The results suggested that colon cancer might have higher association with genetic factors than behavioral factors among Thai patients. Based on the results of this study, stop smoking and promote adequate physical activity are suggested to reduce the incidence of colon cancrr among Thai patients.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The AUDIT questionnaire: choosing a cut-off score. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test.

          The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a 10-item questionnaire designed by the World Health Organization to screen for hazardous alcohol intake in primary health care settings. In this longitudinal study we examined its performance in predicting alcohol-related harm over the full range of its scores using receiver operating characteristic analyses. Three hundred and thirty ambulatory care patients were interviewed using a detailed assessment schedule which included the AUDIT questions. After 2-3 years, subjects were reviewed and their experience of alcohol-related medical and social harm assessed by interview and perusal of medical records. AUDIT was a good predictor of both alcohol-related social and medical problems. Cut-off points of 7-8 maximized discrimination in the prediction of trauma and hypertension. Higher cut-offs (12 and 22) provided better discrimination in the prediction of alcohol-related social problems and of liver disease or gastrointestinal bleeding, but high specificity was offset by reduced sensitivity. We conclude that the recommended cut-off score of eight is a reasonable approximation to the optimal for a variety of endpoints.
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            The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST).

            Few nicotine dependence measures have been developed for smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Existing measures are limited by the requirement to rate the nicotine content of ST brands for which data is scarce or non-existent. We modified the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) for ST users, referred to this scale as the FTND-ST, and evaluated its characteristics in a population of 42 ST users. The correlation between the FTND-ST total score and the serum cotinine concentrations was 0.53 (p<0.001). Internal consistency reliability assessed using the coefficient alpha was 0.47. Correlations and the coefficient alpha are similar to those reported for commonly used nicotine dependence measures. Development and refinement of nicotine dependence measures for ST users are essential steps in order to advance the field of ST research.
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              Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP). A review of the literature.

              Over the last decade, a subset of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with a milder course of disease termed attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) has been described. AFAP is not well-defined as a disease entity - the reports on AFAP are largely casuistic or only deal with a few kindreds--and the diagnostic criteria and methods of investigation differ markedly. The true incidence and frequency of AFAP is not known. The mutations in APC associated with AFAP have mainly been detected in three parts of the gene: in the 5' end (the first five exons), in exon 9 and in the distal 3' end. The main features of AFAP are 100 or less colorectal adenomas with a tendency to rectal sparing, a delay in onset of adenomatosis and bowel symptoms of 20-25 years, a delay in onset of colorectal cancer (CRC) of 10-20 years and death from CRC of 15-20 years, and although the lifetime penetrance of CRC appears to be high, CRC does not seem to develop in nearly all affected patients. A more limited expression of the extracolonic features is seen, but gastric and duodenal adenomas are frequently encountered. Colonoscopy is preferred to sigmoidoscopy, should begin at the age of 20-25 years and no upper age limit of stopping surveillance is justified. Regular esophago-gastro- duodenoscopy (EGD) is recommended. Until further research has provided us with a more substantiated knowledge about AFAP changes in current surveillance and treatment are not recommended. Prophylactic colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) is recommended in most patients.

                Author and article information

                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                January 2021
                : 22
                : 1
                : 37-43
                [1 ] Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nontaburi 11000, Thailand.
                [2 ] Department of Family Health, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
                [3 ] Medical Research Network of the Consortium of Thai Medical Schools, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
                [4 ] Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
                [5 ] Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
                [6 ] Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand.
                [7 ] Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.
                [8 ] Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand.
                [9 ] Thai Health Promotion Foundation, Bangkok 10120, Thailand.
                [10 ] Bureau of Epidemiology, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
                Author notes
                [* ]For Correspondence: suthat_97@yahoo.com

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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