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      The Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes among the Dubai Population: Findings from Dubai Household Health Surveys, 2014 and 2017

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          Abstract

          Background: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, imposing a considerable burden on health systems and societies as it affects both individuals and their families and has a large impact on the economic and social development of a country. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes among the Dubai population and associations with diabetes risk factors. Methodology: A cross-sectional Diabetes Household Survey was carried out in the Emirates of Dubai during 2017 as a complementary stage of the Dubai Household Survey, 2014, which was a randomly selected, multistage, stratified, cluster survey. The sampling technique was selected to assess the rates of undiagnosed diabetes as well as the rates of pre-diabetes through screening with HbA1c. The size of the 2017 survey sample was estimated at 300 individuals for Emirati and 300 for non-Emirati. An additional 200 individuals were added to address non-response cases. These were added to those who were identified as diabetics in the 2014 Household Health Survey and then weighted to give a representative sample for the Dubai population. Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of diabetes in Dubai among UAE nationals was 19%, and it was 14.7% for expats. Consequently, the overall prevalence of diabetes in Dubai is 15.2%. Undiagnosed diabetes was 10% in UAE nationals and 10.9% in expats. Pre-diabetes in UAE national males was lower than in females, although this pattern was not observed among expats. Younger age, normal weight, and exercise were associated with lower rates of diabetes and pre-diabetes in UAE nationals and expats. Hypertension was associated with higher rates of diabetes regardless of nationality. Conclusions: The study concluded that the prevalence of diabetes among the Dubai population is alarmingly high and that a large proportion of the population are not aware of their diagnosis. A higher prevalence of diabetes is associated with multiple factors, such as age, male gender, hypertension, higher BMI, lack of exercise, and lower level or no education, as well as a family history of diabetes mellitus. Many of these factors can be easily modified, which could lead to a decrease in the burden of the disease.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Prevalence of and Trends in Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 1988-2012.

          Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United States. New US data are available to estimate prevalence of and trends in diabetes.
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            Diabetes mellitus type 2 and other chronic non-communicable diseases in the central region, Saudi Arabia (riyadh cohort 2): a decade of an epidemic

            Background Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable diseases, specifically in the urban region, where modifiable risk factors remain rampant. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods A total of 9,149 adult Saudis ages seven to eighty years (5,357 males (58.6%) and 3,792 females (41.4%)) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and obesity were based on the World Health Organization definitions. Diagnoses of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) were based on the Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and American Heart Association criteria, respectively. Results The overall crude prevalence of DMT2 was 23.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 20.47 to 22.15). The age-adjusted prevalence of DMT2 was 31.6%. DMT2 prevalence was significantly higher in males, with an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 34.7% (95% CI 32.6 to 35.4), than in females, who had an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 26.7 to 29.3) (P < 0.001). The overall crude prevalence of obesity was 31.1% (95% CI 30.1 to 32.0). The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 40.0%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in females, with an overall prevalence of 36.5% (95% CI 35.1 to 37.83), than in males (25.1% (95% CI 23.7 to 26.3)) (P < 0.001). The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and CAD were 32.6% (95% CI 31.7 to 33.6) and 6.9% (95% CI 6.4 to 7.4), respectively. Conclusion Comparisons of our findings with earlier data show that the prevalence of DMT2, hypertension and CAD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has alarmingly worsened. Aggressive promotion of public awareness, continued screening and early intervention are pivotal to boosting a positive response.
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              Undiagnosed NIDDM: clinical and public health issues.

               R. Harris (1993)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DDE
                10.1159/issn.2673-1738
                International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
                S. Karger AG
                2673-1797
                2673-1738
                2020
                December 2020
                22 July 2020
                : 26
                : 2
                : 78-84
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Dubai Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                bDepartment of Strategy and Governance, Strategy and Corporate Development Sector, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                cDepartment of Data Analysis, Research and Studies, Strategy and Corporate Development Sector, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                dDepartment of Public Health Protection, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                eDepartment of Health Economy and Insurance Policy, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                Author notes
                *Fatheya Alawadi, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Dubai Hospital, Al Khaleej Street, Al Baraha, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, PO Box 7272 (UAE), ffAlawadi@dha.gov.ae
                Article
                508833 Dubai Diabetes Endocrinol J 2020;26:78–84
                10.1159/000508833
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article

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