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      Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/CT for lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy

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          Most cited references 27

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          The TME trial after a median follow-up of 6 years: increased local control but no survival benefit in irradiated patients with resectable rectal carcinoma.

          To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has shown to improve local control and survival in combination with conventional surgery. The TME trial investigated the value of this regimen in combination with total mesorectal excision. Long-term results are reported after a median follow-up of 6 years. One thousand eight hundred and sixty-one patients with resectable rectal cancer were randomized between TME preceded by 5 x 5 Gy or TME alone. No chemotherapy was allowed. There was no age limit. Surgery, radiotherapy, and pathologic examination were standardized. Primary endpoint was local control. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.1 year. Five-year local recurrence risk of patients undergoing a macroscopically complete local resection was 5.6% in case of preoperative radiotherapy compared with 10.9% in patients undergoing TME alone (P < 0.001). Overall survival at 5 years was 64.2% and 63.5%, respectively (P = 0.902). Subgroup analyses showed significant effect of radiotherapy in reducing local recurrence risk for patients with nodal involvement, for patients with lesions between 5 and 10 cm from the anal verge, and for patients with uninvolved circumferential resection margins. With increasing follow-up, there is a persisting overall effect of preoperative short-term radiotherapy on local control in patients with clinically resectable rectal cancer. However, there is no effect on overall survival. Since survival is mainly determined by distant metastases, efforts should be directed towards preventing systemic disease.
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            Morphologic predictors of lymph node status in rectal cancer with use of high-spatial-resolution MR imaging with histopathologic comparison.

            To evaluate signal intensity and border characteristics of lymph nodes at high-spatial-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with rectal cancer and to compare these findings with size in prediction of nodal status. Forty-two patients who underwent total mesorectal excision of the rectum to determine if they had rectal carcinoma were studied with preoperative thin-section MR imaging. Lymph nodes were harvested from 42 transversely sectioned surgical specimens. The slice of each lymph node was carefully matched with its location on the corresponding MR images. Nodal size, border contour, and signal intensity on MR images were characterized and related to histologic involvement with metastases. Differences in sensitivity and specificity with border or signal intensity were calculated with CIs by using method 10 of Newcombe. Of the 437 nodes harvested, 102 were too small (<3 mm) to be depicted on MR images, and only two of these contained metastases. In 15 (68%) of 22 patients with nodal metastases, the size of normal or reactive nodes was equal to or greater than that of positive nodes in the same specimen. Fifty-one nodes were above the area imaged, and seven of these contained metastases. The diameter of benign and malignant nodes was similar; therefore, size was a poor predictor of nodal status. If a node was defined as suspicious because of an irregular border or mixed signal intensity, a superior accuracy was obtained and resulted in a sensitivity of 51 (85%) of 60 (95% CI: 74%, 92%) and a specificity of 216 (97%) of 221 (95% CI: 95%, 99%). Prediction of nodal involvement in rectal cancer with MR imaging is improved by using the border contour and signal intensity characteristics of lymph nodes instead of size criteria. Copyright RSNA, 2003
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              Extended lymphadenectomy versus conventional surgery for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

              Lateral pelvic lymph-node metastases occur in 10-25% of patients with rectal cancer, and are associated with higher local recurrence and reduced survival rates. A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the value of extended lateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the operative management of rectal cancer. We searched Medline, Embase, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for studies published between 1965 and 2009 that compared extended lymphadenectomy (EL) with standard rectal resection. 20 studies, which included 5502 patients from one randomised, three prospective non-randomised, and 14 retrospective case-control studies published between 1984 and 2009, met our search criteria and were assessed. 2577 patients underwent EL and 2925 underwent non-EL for rectal cancer. Random and fixed-effects meta-analytical models were used where indicated, and between-study heterogeneity was assessed. End-points evaluated included peri-operative outcomes, 5-year survival and recurrence rates. Operating time was significantly longer in the EL group by 76.7 min (95% CI 18.77-134.68; p=0.0096). Intra-operative blood loss was greater in the EL group by 536.5 mL (95% CI 353.7-719.2; p<0.0001). Peri-operative mortality (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.34-1.93; p=0.63) and morbidity (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.89-2.35; p=0.13) were similar between the two groups. Data from individual studies showed that male sexual dysfunction and urinary dysfunction (three studies: OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.66-8.23; p=0.0012) were more prevalent in the EL group. There were no significant differences in 5-year survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.78-1.50; p=0.62), 5-year disease-free survival (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.75-2.03, p=0.41), and local (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.61-1.13; p=0.23) or distant recurrence (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.21; p=0.60). Extended lymphadenectomy does not seem to confer a significant overall cancer-specific advantage, but does seem to be associated with increased urinary and sexual dysfunction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Techniques in Coloproctology
                Tech Coloproctol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1123-6337
                1128-045X
                May 2018
                April 6 2018
                May 2018
                : 22
                : 5
                : 347-354
                Article
                10.1007/s10151-018-1779-0
                © 2018

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