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      Keratinocyte Induced Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Dermal Myofibroblasts: A Role in EffectiveWound Healing

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          Most cited references 33

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          Common and unique mechanisms regulate fibrosis in various fibroproliferative diseases.

           Thomas Wynn (2007)
          Fibroproliferative diseases, including the pulmonary fibroses, systemic sclerosis, liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease, progressive kidney disease, and macular degeneration, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and can affect all tissues and organ systems. Fibrotic tissue remodeling can also influence cancer metastasis and accelerate chronic graft rejection in transplant recipients. Nevertheless, despite its enormous impact on human health, there are currently no approved treatments that directly target the mechanism(s) of fibrosis. The primary goals of this Review series on fibrotic diseases are to discuss some of the major fibroproliferative diseases and to identify the common and unique mechanisms of fibrogenesis that might be exploited in the development of effective antifibrotic therapies.
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            Keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions in wound healing.

            Cutaneous tissue repair aims at restoring the barrier function of the skin. To achieve this, defects need to be replaced by granulation tissue to form new connective tissue, and epithelial wound closure is required to restore the physical barrier. Different wound-healing phases are recognized, starting with an inflammation-dominated early phase giving way to granulation tissue build-up and scar remodeling after epithelial wound closure has been achieved. In the granulation tissue, mesenchymal cells are maximally activated, cells proliferate, and synthesize huge amounts of extracellular matrix. Epithelial cells also proliferate and migrate over the provisional matrix of the underlying granulation tissue, eventually closing the defect. This review focuses on the role of keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions in the wound-healing process. There is ample evidence that keratinocytes stimulate fibroblasts to synthesize growth factors, which in turn will stimulate keratinocyte proliferation in a double paracrine manner. Moreover, fibroblasts can acquire a myofibroblast phenotype under the control of keratinocytes. This depends on a finely tuned balance between a proinflammatory or a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-dominated environment. As the phenotype of fibroblasts from different tissues or body sites becomes better defined, we may understand their individual contribution in wound healing in more detail and possibly explain different clinical outcomes.
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              Regenerating the heart.

              Cell-based cardiac repair offers the promise of rebuilding the injured heart from its component parts. Work began with committed cells such as skeletal myoblasts, but recently the field has expanded to explore an array of cell types, including bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells, resident cardiac stem cells, and both mouse and human embryonic stem cells. A related strategy for cardiac repair involves cell mobilization with factors such as cytokines. Translation of cell-based approaches to the clinic has progressed rapidly, and clinical trials using autologous skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow cells are under way. Many challenges remain before the vision of healing an infarct by muscle regeneration can be realized. Future research is likely to focus on improving our ability to guide the differentiation of stem cells, control their survival and proliferation, identify factors that mediate their homing and modulate the heart's innate inflammatory and fibrotic responses.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Translational Science
                River Publishers
                : 2016
                : 1
                : 5-32
                [1 ]Intermountain Precision Genomics, Intermountain Healthcare, Dixie Regional Medical Center 292 South 1470 East, Suite 201 & 301, St. George, UT 84770, USA
                [2 ]Department of Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology, Genentech, 1, DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, New Brunswick-Piscataway, Rutgers University, 675 Hoes Lane West, Piscataway, NJ 08854. USA
                © 2016

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit

                Engineering, Materials science


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