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      Knock down analysis reveals critical phases for specific oskar noncoding RNA functions during Drosophila oogenesis


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          The oskar transcript, acting as a noncoding RNA, contributes to a diverse set of pathways in the Drosophila ovary, including karyosome formation, positioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), integrity of certain ribonucleoprotein particles, control of nurse cell divisions, restriction of several proteins to the germline, and progression through oogenesis. How oskar mRNA acts to perform these functions remains unclear. Here, we use a knock down approach to identify the critical phases when oskar is required for three of these functions. The existing transgenic shRNA for removal of oskar mRNA in the germline targets a sequence overlapping a regulatory site bound by Bruno1 protein to confer translational repression, and was ineffective during oogenesis. Novel transgenic shRNAs targeting other sites were effective at strongly reducing oskar mRNA levels and reproducing phenotypes associated with the absence of the mRNA. Using GAL4 drivers active at different developmental stages of oogenesis, we found that early loss of oskar mRNA reproduced defects in karyosome formation and positioning of the MTOC, but not arrest of oogenesis. Loss of oskar mRNA at later stages was required to prevent progression through oogenesis. The noncoding function of oskar mRNA is thus required for more than a single event.

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          Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes.

          We have designed a system for targeted gene expression that allows the selective activation of any cloned gene in a wide variety of tissue- and cell-specific patterns. The gene encoding the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is inserted randomly into the Drosophila genome to drive GAL4 expression from one of a diverse array of genomic enhancers. It is then possible to introduce a gene containing GAL4 binding sites within its promoter, to activate it in those cells where GAL4 is expressed, and to observe the effect of this directed misexpression on development. We have used GAL4-directed transcription to expand the domain of embryonic expression of the homeobox protein even-skipped. We show that even-skipped represses wingless and transforms cells that would normally secrete naked cuticle into denticle secreting cells. The GAL4 system can thus be used to study regulatory interactions during embryonic development. In adults, targeted expression can be used to generate dominant phenotypes for use in genetic screens. We have directed expression of an activated form of the Dras2 protein, resulting in dominant eye and wing defects that can be used in screens to identify other members of the Dras2 signal transduction pathway.
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            The development and application of optogenetics.

            Genetically encoded, single-component optogenetic tools have made a significant impact on neuroscience, enabling specific modulation of selected cells within complex neural tissues. As the optogenetic toolbox contents grow and diversify, the opportunities for neuroscience continue to grow. In this review, we outline the development of currently available single-component optogenetic tools and summarize the application of various optogenetic tools in diverse model organisms.
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              FlyBase: updates to the Drosophila melanogaster knowledge base

              Abstract FlyBase (flybase.org) is an essential online database for researchers using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, facilitating access to a diverse array of information that includes genetic, molecular, genomic and reagent resources. Here, we describe the introduction of several new features at FlyBase, including Pathway Reports, paralog information, disease models based on orthology, customizable tables within reports and overview displays (‘ribbons’) of expression and disease data. We also describe a variety of recent important updates, including incorporation of a developmental proteome, upgrades to the GAL4 search tab, additional Experimental Tool Reports, migration to JBrowse for genome browsing and improvements to batch queries/downloads and the Fast-Track Your Paper tool.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                G3 (Bethesda)
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Oxford University Press
                December 2021
                29 September 2021
                29 September 2021
                : 11
                : 12
                : jkab340
                Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas at Austin , Austin, TX 78712, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Email: pmac@ 123456utexas.edu
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 06 August 2021
                : 17 September 2021
                : 04 December 2021
                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health, DOI 10.13039/100000002;
                Award ID: R01 GM118526

                noncoding rna,oskar,karyosome,mtoc,oogenesis,shrna
                noncoding rna, oskar, karyosome, mtoc, oogenesis, shrna


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