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      Association between Periodontal Disease and Comorbidities in Saudi's Eastern Province

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          Abstract

          The incidence of periodontal diseases is associated with multiple comorbidities that influence a patient's treatment planning. This study evaluates the relation between periodontal disease and multiple comorbidities reported in the Saudi population from the Eastern province. This study was conducted on 190 patients, who visited the periodontology clinics at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data, smoking habits, past medical and dental histories, blood pressure, random blood glucose, and recent haemoglobin A1c were recorded. A comprehensive periodontal examination included the number of missing teeth, pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and mobility of all teeth except third molars. Radiographic bone loss was measured on standardized full-mouth periapical radiographs. Multivariable regression models were calculated aiming to see the association between different comorbidities and alveolar bone loss with confounders controlled. Out of 190 periodontitis patients, 56 (29.5%) were males and 134 (70.5%) were females. More than half of the patients (60%) were between 26 and 50 years, 30% of them had diabetes, and 18% were smokers. The risk of alveolar bone loss was higher in persons who had diabetes and those who had both diabetes and coronary heart disease than those who did not, although the association was not statistically significant ( B = 1.26, 95%CI = −0.30, 2.82, and B = 2.86, 95%CI = −1.25, 6.96, respectively). The risk of alveolar bone loss was significantly higher among persons with diabetes and hypertension ( B = 2.82 and 95%CI = 0.89, 4.75). Collectively, the risk of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients increases with diabetes in the presence of other comorbidities regardless of smoking or gender.

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          IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040.

          To produce current estimates of the national, regional and global impact of diabetes for 2015 and 2040.
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            Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control: A Systematic Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries.

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              Global burden of severe periodontitis in 1990-2010: a systematic review and meta-regression.

              We aimed to consolidate all epidemiologic data about severe periodontitis (SP) and, subsequently, to generate internally consistent prevalence and incidence estimates for all countries, 20 age groups, and both sexes for 1990 and 2010. The systematic search of the literature yielded 6,394 unique citations. After screening titles and abstracts, we excluded 5,881 citations as clearly not relevant to this systematic review, leaving 513 for full-text review. A further 441 publications were excluded following the validity assessment. A total of 72 studies, including 291,170 individuals aged 15 yr or older in 37 countries, were included in the metaregression based on modeling resources of the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. SP was the sixth-most prevalent condition in the world. Between 1990 and 2010, the global age-standardized prevalence of SP was static at 11.2% (95% uncertainty interval: 10.4%-11.9% in 1990 and 10.5%-12.0% in 2010). The age-standardized incidence of SP in 2010 was 701 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% uncertainty interval: 599-823), a nonsignificant increase from the 1990 incidence of SP. Prevalence increased gradually with age, showing a steep increase between the third and fourth decades of life that was driven by a peak in incidence at around 38 yr of age. There were considerable variations in prevalence and incidence between regions and countries. Policy makers need to be aware of a predictable increasing burden of SP due to the growing world population associated with an increasing life expectancy and a significant decrease in the prevalence of total tooth loss throughout the world from 1990 to 2010.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2021
                16 April 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31411, P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia
                2Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31411, P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia
                3Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21527, Egypt
                4College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31411, P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia
                5Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, Banja Luka 78000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
                6Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Medical Faculty University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka 78000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Iole Vozza

                Article
                10.1155/2021/5518195
                8068527
                Copyright © 2021 Marwa Madi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University
                Funded by: Ministry of Education – Kingdom of Saudi Arabi
                Award ID: IF-2020-006-Dent
                Categories
                Research Article

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