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      Effect of Rosuvastatin on Outcomes in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients: Baseline Data from the AURORA Study

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          Abstract

          Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Aims: AURORA (A study to evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in subjects On Regular haemodialysis: an Assessment of survival and cardiovascular events) is the first large-scale international trial to assess the effects of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ESRD on chronic haemodialysis. Preliminary baseline data from the randomised population are presented. Methods: A total of 2,775 patients from 280 centres in 25 countries were randomised into the study. Patients aged 50–80 years on regular chronic haemodialysis for at least 3 months before screening were eligible for inclusion. They were randomised 1:1 to receive either rosuvastatin 10 mg or placebo daily and assessed throughout the study. Results: The mean age at baseline was 64 years. Most patients were male (62%) and 85% were white. The median time since commencing renal replacement was 32 months. Mean total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were 4.53 mmol/l (175 mg/dl) and 2.57 mmol/l (99 mg/dl), respectively. Conclusion: Results from the AURORA trial will impact on the current guidelines and use of statins in this patient population.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

            Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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              Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a strong predictor for acute coronary heart disease events in apparently healthy, middle-aged men from the general population.

              Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is thought to play a key role in the inflammatory response in the arterial vessel wall. In a prospective, nested, case-control study, the association between plasma oxLDL and risk of an acute coronary heart disease (CHD) event was investigated in men without prevalent CHD or diabetes mellitus at baseline. Subjects came from 2 population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg surveys conducted in the years 1989-1990 and 1994-1995 with follow-up in 1998 (mean+/-SD follow-up time, 5.6+/-2.6 years). OxLDL was determined by ELISA in 88 men with incident CHD and in 258 age- and survey-matched controls. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from conditional logistic-regression models with matching for age and survey. Baseline mean plasma oxLDL concentrations were significantly higher in subjects who subsequently experienced an event compared with controls (mean+/-SD, 110+/-32 versus 93+/-28 U/L; P< or =0.001). After adjustment for smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical activity, education, and alcohol consumption, the HR for a future CHD event in a comparison of the upper tertile of the oxLDL distribution with the lower tertile was 4.25 (95% confidence interval, 2.09 to 8.63; P<0.001). Plasma oxLDL was the strongest predictor of CHD events compared with a conventional lipoprotein profile and other traditional risk factors for CHD. When both oxLDL and C-reactive protein were simultaneously assessed in the same model, they still predicted future CHD events even after multivariable adjustment. Elevated concentrations of oxLDL are predictive of future CHD events in apparently healthy men. Thus, oxLDL may represent a promising risk marker for clinical CHD complications and should be evaluated in further studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                September 2007
                31 July 2007
                : 30
                : 5
                : 314-322
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medical Science, Renal Unit, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; bDepartment of Nephrology, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; cBHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow; dAstraZeneca, Macclesfield, UK; eDepartment of Nephrology and Hypertension, Universitätsklinik, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; fformer AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, UK and gClinical Investigation Centre INSERM (CIC), Hôpital Jeanne d’Arc, Toul, France
                Article
                106803 PMC2790755 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:314–322
                10.1159/000106803
                PMC2790755
                17671394
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 48, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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