Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Aims: AURORA (A study to evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in subjects On Regular haemodialysis: an Assessment of survival and cardiovascular events) is the first large-scale international trial to assess the effects of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ESRD on chronic haemodialysis. Preliminary baseline data from the randomised population are presented. Methods: A total of 2,775 patients from 280 centres in 25 countries were randomised into the study. Patients aged 50–80 years on regular chronic haemodialysis for at least 3 months before screening were eligible for inclusion. They were randomised 1:1 to receive either rosuvastatin 10 mg or placebo daily and assessed throughout the study. Results: The mean age at baseline was 64 years. Most patients were male (62%) and 85% were white. The median time since commencing renal replacement was 32 months. Mean total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were 4.53 mmol/l (175 mg/dl) and 2.57 mmol/l (99 mg/dl), respectively. Conclusion: Results from the AURORA trial will impact on the current guidelines and use of statins in this patient population.