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      Cytogenetics and FLT3-ITD mutation predict clinical outcomes in non transplant patients with acute myeloid leukemia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Cytogenetic abnormalities and mutated genes indicate the role of consolidation therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we conducted a retrospective study in adult AML patients with newly diagnosed with de novo AML who did not undergo HSCT, to study long term relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after consolidation chemotherapy.

          Methods

          We recruited 141 consecutive AML patients during January 2010–June 2017, the patients received induction chemotherapy with standard dose Ara-C and Idarubicin (7 + 3 or 5 + 2 regimen) followed by intermediate (IDAC) or high dose Ara-c (HiDAC) consolidation therapy.

          Results

          Normal karyotype, complex, favorable, intermediate and adverse chromosomal aberrations were found in 59%, 16%, 5%, 14% and 6%, respectively. Mutated NPM1, FLT3-ITD and CEBPA genes in CN-AML were seen in 33%, 18% and 19%, respectively. A 5 year follow up, 5y-RFS was 16% and 5y-OS was 14% in the whole study population. 5y-RFS and 5y-OS in patients completed 4 cycles of consolidation therapy were 25% and 40%, respectively. Adverse cytogenetic risk and mutated FLT3-ITD were significantly associated with poor RFS (9 and 15 months, respectively) and OS (14 and 16 months, respectively), whereas patients with mutant NPM1 had favorable outcomes (RFS/OS = 51/63 months). Patients receiving 4 cycles of consolidation therapy had significantly impacts on median RFS and OS compared with those treated with 1 or 2 cycles; 15 versus 11 months ( p = 0.006) and 31 versus 15 months ( p < 0.001), respectively.

          Conclusions

          Cytogenetic and mutation tests for FLT3-ITD, NPM1 and CEBPA genes were meaningful for predicting outcomes in adult AML patients. Adverse cytogenetic abnormalities and FLT3-ITD mutation showed dismal RFS and OS.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Prognostic relevance of integrated genetic profiling in acute myeloid leukemia.

          Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to presentation and clinical outcome. The prognostic value of recently identified somatic mutations has not been systematically evaluated in a phase 3 trial of treatment for AML. We performed a mutational analysis of 18 genes in 398 patients younger than 60 years of age who had AML and who were randomly assigned to receive induction therapy with high-dose or standard-dose daunorubicin. We validated our prognostic findings in an independent set of 104 patients. We identified at least one somatic alteration in 97.3% of the patients. We found that internal tandem duplication in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD), partial tandem duplication in MLL (MLL-PTD), and mutations in ASXL1 and PHF6 were associated with reduced overall survival (P=0.001 for FLT3-ITD, P=0.009 for MLL-PTD, P=0.05 for ASXL1, and P=0.006 for PHF6); CEBPA and IDH2 mutations were associated with improved overall survival (P=0.05 for CEBPA and P=0.01 for IDH2). The favorable effect of NPM1 mutations was restricted to patients with co-occurring NPM1 and IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. We identified genetic predictors of outcome that improved risk stratification among patients with AML, independently of age, white-cell count, induction dose, and post-remission therapy, and validated the significance of these predictors in an independent cohort. High-dose daunorubicin, as compared with standard-dose daunorubicin, improved the rate of survival among patients with DNMT3A or NPM1 mutations or MLL translocations (P=0.001) but not among patients with wild-type DNMT3A, NPM1, and MLL (P=0.67). We found that DNMT3A and NPM1 mutations and MLL translocations predicted an improved outcome with high-dose induction chemotherapy in patients with AML. These findings suggest that mutational profiling could potentially be used for risk stratification and to inform prognostic and therapeutic decisions regarding patients with AML. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
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            Mutations and treatment outcome in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.

            Mutations occur in several genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells: the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1), the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3), the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha gene (CEPBA), the myeloid-lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL), and the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS). We evaluated the associations of these mutations with clinical outcomes in patients. We compared the mutational status of the NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, MLL, and NRAS genes in leukemia cells with the clinical outcome in 872 adults younger than 60 years of age with cytogenetically normal AML. Patients had been entered into one of four trials of therapy for AML. In each study, patients with an HLA-matched related donor were assigned to undergo stem-cell transplantation. A total of 53% of patients had NPM1 mutations, 31% had FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITDs), 11% had FLT3 tyrosine kinase-domain mutations, 13% had CEBPA mutations, 7% had MLL partial tandem duplications (PTDs), and 13% had NRAS mutations. The overall complete-remission rate was 77%. The genotype of mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD, the mutant CEBPA genotype, and younger age were each significantly associated with complete remission. Of the 663 patients who received postremission therapy, 150 underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-matched related donor. Significant associations were found between the risk of relapse or the risk of death during complete remission and the leukemia genotype of mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.61), the mutant CEBPA genotype (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.75), and the MLL-PTD genotype (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.43), as well as receipt of a transplant from an HLA-matched related donor (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.82). The benefit of the transplant was limited to the subgroup of patients with the prognostically adverse genotype FLT3-ITD or the genotype consisting of wild-type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD. Genotypes defined by the mutational status of NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, and MLL are associated with the outcome of treatment for patients with cytogenetically normal AML. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Pretreatment cytogenetic abnormalities are predictive of induction success, cumulative incidence of relapse, and overall survival in adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 8461).

              We analyzed prospectively 1213 adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to ascertain the prognostic impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on complete remission (CR) rate, 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and 5-year overall survival (OS). All patients received similar induction therapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 8.3 years. Nonprioritized cytogenetics distinguished t(8;21) and inv(16)/t(16;16) as conferring a significantly better prognosis than normal karyotype. Prognostic impact of many abnormalities could not be determined independently because of their association with complex karyotype. Neither complex karyotype nor secondary aberrations affected outcome of patients with t(8;21), inv(16)/t(16;16), or t(9;11). Among other patients, those with complex karyotypes had significantly worse outcomes than cytogenetically normal patients. Based on outcome for specific cytogenetic abnormalities and karyotype complexity, patients were divided into 3 risk groups: favorable (CR 88%, CIR 54%, OS 55%), intermediate (CR 67%, CIR 67%, OS 24%), and adverse (CR 32%, CIR 92%, OS 5%). Multivariate analyses confirmed the major contribution of cytogenetics to the probability of attaining CR, CIR, and OS. For the adverse-risk group, the probability of achieving CR was 4.0 and 11.9 times lower, the probability of relapse 3.0 and 4.4 times higher, and the risk of death 2.1 and 4.3 times higher than those for the intermediate and favorable groups, respectively. We conclude that although the prognostic impact of many recurring abnormalities has not been ascertained independently of complex karyotype, cytogenetics is among the most useful factors predicting attainment of CR, CIR, and long-term survival in adult AML.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                niparuckblue@gmail.com
                Journal
                Exp Hematol Oncol
                Exp Hematol Oncol
                Experimental Hematology & Oncology
                BioMed Central (London )
                2162-3619
                30 January 2019
                30 January 2019
                2019
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
                [2 ]Human Genetics Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0490, GRID grid.10223.32, Department of Medicine, , Chakri Naruebodindra Medical Institute, Mahidol University, ; Bangkok, Thailand
                Article
                127
                10.1186/s40164-019-0127-z
                6354374
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                cebpa, acute myeloid leukemia, cytogenetics, flt3-itd, npm1

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