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      Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 as a negative independent prognostic factor in primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like regimen and rituximab

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      Oncology Letters

      Spandidos Publications

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          Abstract

          The aims of the present study were to elucidate the transcript levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in patients with primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL), and determine the association of their expression with the clinical parameters and prognostic values of the disease. The results revealed that the expression of DNMT1 in patients with PGI-DLBCL was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P=0.04), while the expression of DNMT3a and DNMT3b were significantly lower (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). The increased expression of DNMT1 was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival rates (P=0.018 and P=0.008, respectively). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the level of DNMT1 was an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, DNMT1 was identified to be an independent prognostic factor for predicting the survival of patients with PGI-DLBCL; this suggests that it could be used as a marker to indicate the prognosis of PGI-DLBCL.

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          Most cited references 27

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          DNA methylation, methyltransferases, and cancer.

          The field of epigenetics has recently moved to the forefront of studies relating to diverse processes such as transcriptional regulation, chromatin structure, genome integrity, and tumorigenesis. Recent work has revealed how DNA methylation and chromatin structure are linked at the molecular level and how methylation anomalies play a direct causal role in tumorigenesis and genetic disease. Much new information has also come to light regarding the cellular methylation machinery, known as the DNA methyltransferases, in terms of their roles in mammalian development and the types of proteins they are known to interact with. This information has forced a new view for the role of DNA methyltransferases. Rather than enzymes that act in isolation to copy methylation patterns after replication, the types of interactions discovered thus far indicate that DNA methyltransferases may be components of larger complexes actively involved in transcriptional control and chromatin structure modulation. These new findings will likely enhance our understanding of the myriad roles of DNA methylation in disease as well as point the way to novel therapies to prevent or repair these defects.
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            Alteration of DNA methyltransferases contributes to 5'CpG methylation and poor prognosis in lung cancer.

            Overexpression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b has been reported in various cancers. However, physical binding of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) to the hypermethylated promoter of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) has never been demonstrated in tumor tissues. In addition, alteration of DNMT at the protein level has never been reported in the same series of cancer patients. By immunohistochemical analysis, we demonstrated that DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b proteins were highly expressed in a coordinate manner in lung tumors, particularly in smokers (P=0.037, by the Fisher exact test). Patients with DNMT1 overexpression had a trend of poorer prognosis than those without such overexpression, and this prognostic significance was apparent in squamous carcinoma (SQ) patients (P=0.041, by the log-rank test). Both DNMT1 and DNMT3b overexpressions correlated with hypermethylation in the TSG promoters, especially among smoking SQ patients (P=0.012). To further explore the molecular mechanisms between altered TSGs promoter methylation and overexpression of DNMTs protein, we performed a tissue chromatin-immunoprecipitation polymerase chain reaction assay for lung tumors and showed that the methylated FHIT, p16(INK4a) and RARbeta promoters were bound by both DNMT protein and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. These data suggest that overexpression and strong binding of various DNMTs may result in promoter hypermethylation of multiple TSGs and ultimately lead to lung tumorigenesis and poor prognosis.
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              Dnmt3a and Dnmt1 functionally cooperate during de novo methylation of DNA.

              Dnmt3a is a de novo DNA methyltransferase that modifies unmethylated DNA. In contrast Dnmt1 shows high preference for hemimethylated DNA. However, Dnmt1 can be activated for the methylation of unmodified DNA. We show here that the Dnmt3a and Dnmt1 DNA methyltransferases functionally cooperate in de novo methylation of DNA, because a fivefold stimulation of methylation activity is observed if both enzymes are present. Stimulation is observed if Dnmt3a is used before Dnmt1, but not if incubation with Dnmt1 precedes Dnmt3a, demonstrating that methylation of the DNA by Dnmt3a stimulates Dnmt1 and that no physical interaction of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a is required. If Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were incubated together a slightly increased stimulation is observed that could be due to a direct interaction of these enzymes. In addition, we show that Dnmt1 is stimulated for methylation of unmodified DNA if the DNA already carries some methyl groups. We conclude that after initiation of de novo methylation of DNA by Dnmt3a, Dnmt1 becomes activated by the pre-existing methyl groups and further methylates the DNA. Our data suggest that Dnmt1 also has a role in de novo methylation of DNA. This model agrees with the biochemical properties of these enzymes and provides a mechanistic basis for the functional cooperation of different DNA MTases in de novo methylation of DNA that has also been observed in vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncology Letters
                Spandidos Publications
                1792-1074
                1792-1082
                2015
                2015
                2015
                2015
                : 9
                : 5
                : 2307-2312
                Article
                10.3892/ol.2015.3038
                4467357
                26137062
                © 2015

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