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      Fibrotic disease and the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm.

      Nature reviews. Immunology

      metabolism, Transforming Growth Factor beta, immunology, Th2 Cells, Th1 Cells, Macrophages, Interleukin-13, Humans, therapy, Fibrosis, Fibroblasts, Chemokines, Animals

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          Alternative activation of macrophages.

           Siamon Gordon (2002)
          The classical pathway of interferon-gamma-dependent activation of macrophages by T helper 1 (T(H)1)-type responses is a well-established feature of cellular immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. The concept of an alternative pathway of macrophage activation by the T(H)2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 has gained credence in the past decade, to account for a distinctive macrophage phenotype that is consistent with a different role in humoral immunity and repair. In this review, I assess the evidence in favour of alternative macrophage activation in the light of macrophage heterogeneity, and define its limits and relevance to a range of immune and inflammatory conditions.
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            Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor.

            Interleukin-10 (IL-10), first recognized for its ability to inhibit activation and effector function of T cells, monocytes, and macrophages, is a multifunctional cytokine with diverse effects on most hemopoietic cell types. The principal routine function of IL-10 appears to be to limit and ultimately terminate inflammatory responses. In addition to these activities, IL-10 regulates growth and/or differentiation of B cells, NK cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, mast cells, granulocytes, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. IL-10 plays a key role in differentiation and function of a newly appreciated type of T cell, the T regulatory cell, which may figure prominently in control of immune responses and tolerance in vivo. Uniquely among hemopoietic cytokines, IL-10 has closely related homologs in several virus genomes, which testify to its crucial role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses. This review highlights findings that have advanced our understanding of IL-10 and its receptor, as well as its in vivo function in health and disease.
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              Functional diversity of helper T lymphocytes.

              The existence of subsets of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes that differ in their cytokine secretion patterns and effector functions provides a framework for understanding the heterogeneity of normal and pathological immune responses. Defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms of helper-T-cell differentiation should lead to rational strategies for manipulating immune responses for prophylaxis and therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                15286725
                2702150
                10.1038/nri1412

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