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Linking Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus via aberrant insulin signaling and inflammation.

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      Abstract

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two progressive and devastating health disorders afflicting millions of people worldwide. The probability and incidence of both have increased considerably in recent years consequent to increased longevity and population growth. Progressively more links are being continuously found between inflammation and central nervous system disorders like AD, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury and even cancers of the nervous tissue. The depth of the relationship depends on the timing and extent of anti- or pro-inflammatory gene expression. Inflammation has also been implicated in T2DM. Misfolding and fibrillization (of tissue specific and/or non-specific proteins) are features common to both AD and T2DM and are induced by as well as contribute to inflammation and stress (oxidative/ glycation). This review appraises the roles of inflammation and abnormalities in the insulin signaling system as important shared features of T2DM and AD. The capacity of anti-cholinesterases in reducing the level of certain common inflammatory markers in particular if they may provide therapeutic potential to mitigate awry mechanisms leading to AD.

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      Affiliations
      [1 ] Metabolomics & Enzymology Unit, Fundamental and Applied Biology Group, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. meu.fabg@hotmail.com.
      Journal
      CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets
      CNS & neurological disorders drug targets
      1996-3181
      1871-5273
      Mar 2014
      : 13
      : 2
      24074448
      CNSNDDT-EPUB-56139
      5947865
      NIHMS948525

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