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      Hemofiltration, adsorption, sieving and the challenge of sepsis therapy design

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      1 , , 2

      Critical Care

      BioMed Central

      adsorption, hemofiltration, membrane, sepsis, sieving

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          Abstract

          Circulating inflammatory mediators spilling into the circulation from sites of active inflammation are considered the source of remote tissue injury and associated organ dysfunction in sepsis. Hemofiltration has been proposed as a therapy for sepsis based on its ability to remove circulating inflammatory mediators by sieving or by adsorption, or both. Designing devices and methods for sepsis therapy will require optimization of these two mechanisms. In the present issue of Critical Care Forum, Kellum and Dishart report the relative effects of sieving and adsorption on plasma IL-6 following cecal ligation and puncture in rats. The authors conclude that hemoadsorption is the main mechanism of removal, and discuss some possible implications for filter design but hemoadsorption is well dependant on hemofiltration (the so-called hemofiltration filter adsorption/synergistic effect). It is important to recognize the limitations of conventional systems; Kellum and Dishart have extended our knowledge of hemofiltration filter adsorption, which is quite different from conventional hemoadsorption. If sepsis is a manifestation of a nonlinear dynamic control system out of control, then filtration at modest doses with a large pore filter may succeed as well as high-volume hemofiltration with a conventional cut-off filter. In the present paper, we will explore the strengths and the weaknesses of the 'Kellum and Dishart' study and discussing their findings in the light of the current available literature.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial.

          Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration is increasingly used to treat acute renal failure in critically ill patients, but a clear definition of an adequate treatment dose has not been established. We undertook a prospective randomised study of the impact different ultrafiltration doses in continuous renal replacement therapy on survival. We enrolled 425 patients, with a mean age of 61 years, in intensive care who had acute renal failure. Patients were randomly assigned ultrafiltration at 20 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 1, n=146), 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 2, n=139), or 45 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 3, n=140). The primary endpoint was survival at 15 days after stopping haemofiltration. We also assessed recovery of renal function and frequency of complications during treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. Survival in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 (p=0.0007) and 3 (p=0.0013). Survival in groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly (p=0.87). Adjustment for possible confounding factors did not change the pattern of differences among the groups. Survivors in all groups had lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen before continuous haemofiltration was started than non-survivors. 95%, 92%, and 90% of survivors in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, had full recovery of renal function. The frequency of complications was similarly low in all groups. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high, but increase in the rate of ultrafiltration improved survival significantly. We recommend that ultrafiltration should be prescribed according to patient's bodyweight and should reach at least 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1).
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            Prospective evaluation of short-term, high-volume isovolemic hemofiltration on the hemodynamic course and outcome in patients with intractable circulatory failure resulting from septic shock.

            To evaluate the effects of short-term, high-volume hemofiltration (STHVH) on hemodynamic and metabolic status and 28-day survival in patients with refractory septic shock. Prospective, interventional. Intensive care unit (ICU), tertiary institution. Twenty patients with intractable cardiocirculatory failure complicating septic shock, who had failed to respond to conventional therapy. STHVH, followed by conventional continuous venovenous hemofiltration. STHVH consisted of a 4-hr period during which 35 L of ultrafiltrate is removed and neutral fluid balance is maintained. Subsequent conventional continuous venovenous hemofiltration continued for at least 4 days. Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen saturation, arterial pH, and lactate were measured serially. Fluid and inotropic support were managed by protocol. Therapeutic endpoints were as follows during STHVH: a) by 2 hrs, a > or =50% increase in cardiac index; b) by 2 hrs, a > or =25% increase in mixed venous saturation; c) by 4 hrs, an increase in arterial pH to >7.3; d) by 4 hrs, a > or =50% reduction in epinephrine dose. Patients who attained all four goals (11 of 20) were considered hemodynamic "responders"; patients who did not (9 of 20) were considered hemodynamic "nonresponders." There were no differences in baseline hemodynamic, metabolic, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation and Simplified Acute Physiology Scores between responders and nonresponders. Survival to 28 days was better among responders (9 of 11 patients) than among nonresponders (0 of 9). Factors associated with survival were hemodynamic-metabolic response status, time interval from ICU admission to initiation of STHVH, and body weight. These data suggest that STHVH may be of major therapeutic value in the treatment of intractable cardiocirculatory failure complicating septic shock. Early initiation of therapy and adequate dose may improve hemodynamic and metabolic responses and 28-day survival.
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              Cytokine removal during continuous hemofiltration in septic patients.

              A potential application of the continuous renal replacement therapies is the extracorporeal removal of inflammatory mediators in septic patients. Cytokine elimination with continuous renal replacement therapies has been demonstrated in several clinical studies, but so far without important effects on their serum concentrations. Improved knowledge of the cytokine removal mechanisms could lead to the development of more efficient treatment strategies. In the present study, 15 patients with septic shock and acute renal failure were observed during the first 24 h of treatment with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) with an AN69 membrane. After 12 h, the hemofilter was replaced and the blood flow rate (QB) was switched from 100 ml/min to 200 ml/min or vice versa. Pre- and postfilter plasma and ultrafiltrate concentrations of selected inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured at several time points allowing the calculation of a mass balance. Cytokine removal was highest 1 h after the start of CVVH and after the change of the membrane (ranging from 25 to 43% of the prefilter amount), corresponding with a significant fall in the serum concentration of all cytokines. The inhibitors of inflammation were removed to the same extent as the inflammatory cytokines. Adsorption to the AN69 membrane appeared to be the main clearance mechanism, being most pronounced immediately after installation of a new membrane and decreasing steadily thereafter, indicating rapid saturation of the membrane. A QB of 200 ml/min was associated with a 75% increase of the ultrafiltration rate and a significantly higher convective elimination and membrane adsorption than at a QB of 100 ml/min. The results indicate that optimal cytokine removal with CVVH with an AN69 membrane could be achieved with a combination of a high QB/ultrafiltration rate and frequent membrane changes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central (London )
                1364-8535
                1466-609X
                2002
                4 September 2002
                : 6
                : 5
                : 394-396
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Consultant in Intensive Care Medicine, General Intensive Care Unit, St Pierre Hospital, Ottignies-Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium
                [2 ]Consultant in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Medical City Hospital, Dallas, Texas, USA
                Article
                cc1826
                137327
                12398774
                2f89910a-3684-47e4-9d59-dac7b31785b3
                Copyright © 2002 BioMed Central Ltd
                Categories
                Commentary

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

                sieving, hemofiltration, sepsis, membrane, adsorption

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