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      Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Resulting from Antepartum Hemorrhage in Women with Placenta Previa and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

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          Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) in women with placenta previa (PP) has been associated with increased perinatal complications. The present study aims to evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcomes, and risk factors related to this condition.


          This retrospective study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Army Military Medical University from January 2016 to September 2019, which included all women with PP. The clinical and ultrasound features in patients with or without APH were compared.


          There were 233 women with APH and 302 women without APH in the cohort. Most of the women with APH were prone to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the logistic regression analysis, cervical length was inversely correlated to APH (OR: 0.972, 95% CI: 0.952~0.993), while complete PP increased the risk for APH (OR: 2.121, 95% CI: 1.208~3.732). Furthermore, the anterior placenta increased the risk for APH (OR: 1.664, 95% CI: 1.139~2.430), the partial absence of the over lying myometrium increased the risk for APH (OR: 2.015, 95% CI: 1.293~3.141), and the previous history of uterine artery embolization (UAE) increased the highest risk for APH (OR: 11.706, 95% CI: 1.424~96.195).


          Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to APH in women with complete PP, short cervical length, anterior placenta, and partially absent over lying myometrium. Prior UAE is a novel risk factor associated with increased prevalence of APH.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Placenta accreta spectrum: pathophysiology and evidence-based anatomy for prenatal ultrasound imaging

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            Pathophysiology of placenta creta: the role of decidua and extravillous trophoblast.

            Placenta creta is associated with massive postpartum hemorrhage and commonly leads to emergency hysterectomy. While the exact pathogenesis of placenta creta is unknown, proposed hypotheses include a primary deficiency of decidua, abnormal maternal vascular remodeling, excessive trophoblastic invasion, or a combination thereof. To assess these changes in placenta creta, we retrospectively reviewed 49 cases of gravid hysterectomy, 38 with and 11 without the diagnosis of creta, gathered clinical data, and evaluated histopathology of extravillous trophoblast. Specifically, we evaluated maternal vessels for remodeling by endovascular trophoblast, as well as the morphology and depth of invasion of interstitial trophoblast at the implantation site. Compared to controls, cases with creta had decreased proportion of remodeled vessels, with many vessels displaying partial physiologic change. Cases with creta also demonstrated vascular remodeling deeper in the myometrium; however, vascular remodeling of large outer myometrial vessels was only demonstrated in increta and percreta cases, and was absent in both non-creta and accreta. As previously reported, interstitial trophoblast invaded the uterine wall to a significantly greater depth in placenta creta; however, there was no significant difference between creta subtypes. Finally, Ki-67 staining was rarely observed in extravillous trophoblast, except in the trophoblast columns of first trimester creta cases. We, therefore, conclude that the pathogenesis of placenta creta is multi-dimensional, involving increased, but incomplete trophoblast invasion in a background of absent decidua. We further propose that placenta increta and percreta are not due to a further invasion of extravillous trophoblast in the uterine wall, rather they likely arise secondary to dehiscence of a scar, leading to the presence of chorionic villi deep within the uterine wall, and thus give extravillous trophoblast greater access to the deep myometrium.
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              Accreta placentation: a systematic review of prenatal ultrasound imaging and grading of villous invasiveness.

              Determining the depth of villous invasiveness before delivery is pivotal in planning individual management of placenta accreta. We have evaluated the value of various ultrasound signs proposed in the international literature for the prenatal diagnosis of accreta placentation and assessment of the depth of villous invasiveness.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                12 January 2021
                : 17
                : 31-38
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University , Chongqing 400037, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zheng-Qiong Chen Email chenzhengqiong75@163.com
                © 2021 Long et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 8, References: 27, Pages: 8
                Funded by: the Technological Innovation and Application Development Project of Chongqing Science and Technology Bureau;
                This research was funded by Grants from the Technological Innovation and Application Development Project of Chongqing Science and Technology Bureau (no.cstc2019jscx-msxmX0269).
                Original Research


                placenta previa, antepartum hemorrhage, bleeding, pregnancy complications, risk factor


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