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      The role of retrotransposable elements in ageing and age-associated diseases

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          The Hallmarks of Aging

          Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging research has experienced an unprecedented advance over recent years, particularly with the discovery that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by genetic pathways and biochemical processes conserved in evolution. This Review enumerates nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms, with special emphasis on mammalian aging. These hallmarks are: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. A major challenge is to dissect the interconnectedness between the candidate hallmarks and their relative contributions to aging, with the final goal of identifying pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging, with minimal side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Cellular Senescence: Defining a Path Forward

            Cellular senescence is a cell state implicated in various physiological processes and a wide spectrum of age-related diseases. Recently, interest in therapeutically targeting senescence to improve healthy aging and age-related disease, otherwise known as senotherapy, has been growing rapidly. Thus, the accurate detection of senescent cells, especially in vivo, is essential. Here, we present a consensus from the International Cell Senescence Association (ICSA), defining and discussing key cellular and molecular features of senescence and offering recommendations on how to use them as biomarkers. We also present a resource tool to facilitate the identification of genes linked with senescence, SeneQuest (available at http://Senequest.net). Lastly, we propose an algorithm to accurately assess and quantify senescence, both in cultured cells and in vivo.
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              Inflammaging: a new immune–metabolic viewpoint for age-related diseases

              Ageing and age-related diseases share some basic mechanistic pillars that largely converge on inflammation. During ageing, chronic, sterile, low-grade inflammation - called inflammaging - develops, which contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. From an evolutionary perspective, a variety of stimuli sustain inflammaging, including pathogens (non-self), endogenous cell debris and misplaced molecules (self) and nutrients and gut microbiota (quasi-self). A limited number of receptors, whose degeneracy allows them to recognize many signals and to activate the innate immune responses, sense these stimuli. In this situation, metaflammation (the metabolic inflammation accompanying metabolic diseases) is thought to be the form of chronic inflammation that is driven by nutrient excess or overnutrition; metaflammation is characterized by the same mechanisms underpinning inflammaging. The gut microbiota has a central role in both metaflammation and inflammaging owing to its ability to release inflammatory products, contribute to circadian rhythms and crosstalk with other organs and systems. We argue that chronic diseases are not only the result of ageing and inflammaging; these diseases also accelerate the ageing process and can be considered a manifestation of accelerated ageing. Finally, we propose the use of new biomarkers (DNA methylation, glycomics, metabolomics and lipidomics) that are capable of assessing biological versus chronological age in metabolic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                August 05 2021
                August 04 2021
                August 05 2021
                : 596
                : 7870
                : 43-53
                Article
                10.1038/s41586-021-03542-y
                34349292
                2fa098cf-0f90-4102-ac29-82fed24da1e5
                © 2021

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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