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      Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis

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          Abstract

          The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. While comparative analyses have been used to identify similarities and differences in spermatogenesis between species, the focus has primarily been on vertebrate spermatogenesis, particularly mammals. To understand the evolutionary basis of spermatogenetic variation, however, a more comprehensive comparison is needed. In this review, we examine spermatogenesis and the final packaging of DNA into the sperm head in the insect Drosophila melanogaster and compare it to spermatogenesis in Homo sapiens.

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          Most cited references79

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          SPERM COMPETITION AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCES IN THE INSECTS

          Biological Reviews, 45(4), 525-567
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            Sperm in competition: not playing by the numbers.

            The outcome of sperm competition is mediated largely by the relative numbers of sperm from competing males. However, substantial variation in features of sperm morphology and behaviour, such as length, longevity and motility, exists and researchers have suggested that this variation functions in postcopulatory sexual selection. Recent studies have determined the effect of these sperm-quality traits on fertilization success and a synthesis of this literature reveals that they are important in both sperm competition and cryptic female choice. To understand how postcopulatory sexual selection influences sperm traits, future research should determine sex-specific interactions that influence paternity, identify genetic correlations between ejaculate characters, quantify the relative costs of producing different sperm traits, and test assumptions of models of sperm quality evolution. Such research will shed light on what evolutionary pressures are responsible for the diversity in sperm morphometry and behaviour.
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              Stem cell self-renewal specified by JAK-STAT activation in response to a support cell cue.

              Stem cells generate many differentiated, short-lived cell types, such as blood, skin, and sperm, throughout adult life. Stem cells maintain a long-term capacity to divide, producing daughter cells that either self-renew or initiate differentiation. Although the surrounding microenvironment or "niche" influences stem cell fate decisions, few signals that emanate from the niche to specify stem cell self-renewal have been identified. Here we demonstrate that the apical hub cells in the Drosophila testis act as a cellular niche that supports stem cell self-renewal. Hub cells express the ligand Unpaired (Upd), which activates the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway in adjacent germ cells to specify self-renewal and continual maintenance of the germ line stem cell population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Spermatogenesis
                Spermatogenesis
                SPMG
                Spermatogenesis
                Landes Bioscience
                2156-5554
                2156-5562
                01 April 2013
                01 April 2013
                01 April 2013
                : 3
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Western University; London, ON, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Amanda J. Moehring; Email: amoehrin@ 123456uwo.ca
                Article
                2012SPGEN0041R2 24376
                10.4161/spmg.24376
                3710222
                23885304
                2fa4ada9-e5f1-4821-a6e8-cdb48577ac47
                Copyright © 2013 Landes Bioscience

                This is an open-access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Human biology
                homo sapiens,drosophila,spermatogenesis,protamines,spermiogenesis,sperm,nebenkern
                Human biology
                homo sapiens, drosophila, spermatogenesis, protamines, spermiogenesis, sperm, nebenkern

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