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      Application of Tissue Doppler Imaging in Cardiology

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          Abstract

          Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a new echocardiographic technique employing the Doppler principle to measure the velocity of myocardial segments and other cardiac structures. It is well suited for the measurement of long-axis ventricular function. Impairment of longitudinal myocardial fiber motion is a sensitive marker of early myocardial dysfunction and ischaemia, and TDI might therefore become an important tool in routine echocardiography. The technique allows truly quantitative measurement of regional myocardial function both at rest and during stress echocardiography. TDI has great potential in the diagnosis of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, overcoming the load-dependence of conventional Doppler techniques. Right ventricular function, intracardiac and pulmonary artery pressures, transplant rejection and intraventricular dyssynchrony can also be assessed. This article reviews the current and evolving applications of TDI in cardiology.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Pulsed Doppler tissue imaging of the velocity of tricuspid annular systolic motion; a new, rapid, and non-invasive method of evaluating right ventricular systolic function.

          Rapid, accurate, and widely available non-invasive evaluation of right ventricular function still presents a problem. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the parameters derived from Doppler tissue imaging of tricuspid annular motion could be used as indexes of right ventricular function in patients with heart failure. Standard and pulsed Doppler tissue echocardiography were obtained in 44 patients with heart failure (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 24 +/- 7%) and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The tricuspid annular systolic and diastolic velocities were acquired in apical four-chamber views at the junction of the right ventricular free wall and the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve using Doppler tissue imaging. Within 2 h of Doppler tissue imaging, the first-pass radionuclide ventriculogram, determining right ventricular ejection fraction and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography single photon emission computed tomography, were performed in all patients. In patients with heart failure, the peak systolic annular velocity was significantly lower and the time from the onset of the electrocardiographic QRS complex to the peak of systolic annular velocity was significantly greater than the corresponding values in healthy subjects (10.3 +/- 2.6 cm. s(-1) vs 15.5 +/- 2.6 cm.s(-1), P < 0.001, and 198 +/- 34ms vs 171 +/- 29 ms, P < 0.01, respectively). There was a good correlation between systolic annular velocity and right ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.648, P <0.001). A systolic annular velocity < 11.5 cm.s(-1)predicted right ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 45%) with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 85%. We conclude that the evaluation of peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity using Doppler tissue imaging provides a simple, rapid, and non-invasive tool for assessing right ventricular systolic function in patients with heart failure. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.
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            Early detection of Fabry cardiomyopathy by tissue Doppler imaging.

            Fabry cardiomyopathy is diagnosed by detection of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with alpha-Galactosidase A deficiency. Conventional noninvasive tools are unable to provide a preclinical diagnosis allowing prompt institution of enzymatic therapy. We studied three groups of patients: 10 patients with causal mutations for Fabry disease and LVH, 10 mutation-positive patients without LV, and 10 healthy relatives without causal mutations and no LVH. All patients with LVH and 6 patients with Fabry disease without LVH with complex repetitive ventricular arrhythmias underwent biventricular endomyocardial biopsy to assess cardiac involvement. In all patients 2-dimensional echocardiography with tissue Doppler analysis in the pulsed Doppler mode was performed: systolic (Sa), early diastolic (Ea), and late diastolic (Aa) velocities were measured, and the Ea/Aa ratio and the dimensionless parameter E/Ea were computed at both corners of the mitral annulus. Histology and electron microscopy studies showed glycosphingolipid deposits in all cases. All mutation-positive patients had significant reduction of Sa, Ea, and Aa velocities at both corners of the mitral annulus compared with normal control subjects. Ea/Aa ratio was significantly lower and E/Ea ratio significantly higher in mutation-positive patients than in control subjects. Patients with LVH showed significantly lower contraction and relaxation tissue Doppler velocities, lower Ea/Aa ratio, and higher E/Ea ratio in comparison with mutation-positive patients with no LVH. Fabry cardiomyopathy is characterized by reduced myocardial contraction and relaxation tissue Doppler velocities, detectable even before development of LVH. Tissue Doppler imaging can provide a preclinical diagnosis of Fabry cardiomyopathy, allowing early institution of enzyme replacement therapy.
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              Normal regional right ventricular function and its change with age: a Doppler myocardial imaging study.

              Doppler Myocardial Imaging (DMI) is a new technique currently being studied for the assessment of regional systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) function. No normal values or data on age-related changes in regional myocardial right ventricular (RV) velocities are available. Color DMI was used in 32 healthy volunteers (aged 16-76 years) to derive regional velocities from basal, medial, and apical segments of the RV free wall in the apical 4-chamber view, and from distal segments as well as from the tricuspid annulus in the parasternal long-axis view. Both mitral annular and regional LV velocities (4-chamber, long-axis parasternal view) were also recorded and compared with corresponding RV regional velocities. The M-mode displacement of the cardiac base was measured. Corresponding RV and LV DMI data sets were compared. For longitudinal function, RV free wall systolic velocities were consistently higher than velocities recorded in corresponding LV segments (analysis of variance, P <.05). Older subjects (40-76 years; 13 men, 2 women) had lower RV long-axis regional velocities than younger subjects (16-39 years; 15 men, 2 women), but had higher short-axis RV systolic velocities. For diastolic velocities, a negative correlation between age and the ratio of regional early diastolic to late diastolic velocity was shown for all RV free wall segments (eg, basal segment: r = -0.63, P <.0001). The right ventricle has higher long-axis regional velocities, a greater excursion of its lateral atrioventricular valve ring, and reduced circumferential shortening velocities compared with the left ventricle. Right ventricular longitudinal shortening is dominant over short-axis function in healthy young subjects. Normal age-related changes of diastolic velocities for each segment of the normal RV free wall have been defined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2004
                February 2004
                27 February 2004
                : 101
                : 4
                : 170-184
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Academic Unit, University of Hull School of Medicine, Kingston upon Hull, UK
                Article
                76694 Cardiology 2004;101:170–184
                10.1159/000076694
                14967960
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 120, Pages: 15
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