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      Ligation of the Uterine Artery and Early Postnatal Food Restriction – Animal Models for Growth Retardation

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          Abstract

          Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the major causes of short stature in child- and adulthood. The cause of IUGR is unknown, however, an impaired uteroplacental function during the second half of human pregnancy might be an important factor, by affecting the programming of somatotropic axis and leading to postnatal growth failure into adulthood. Two rat models with perinatally induced growth retardation were used to examine the long-term effects of perinatal insults on growth. IUGR rats were prepared from pregnant dams, with a bilateral uterine artery ligation at day 17 of their pregnancy. Since the rat is relatively immature at birth, an early postnatal food restriction model was included as another model to broaden the time window of sensitive period of organogenesis. An individual growth curve was calculated of each animal (n = 813). From these individual growth curves the predicted growth curve for each experimental group was calculated by multilevel analysis. The proposed mathematical model allows us to estimate the growth potentials of these rat models with precision and could provide basic information to investigate the relationships among a number of other variables in future studies. Furthermore, we concluded that both pre- and early postnatal malnutrition leads to irreversible slowing down of postnatal growth.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth

          Two follow-up studies were carried out to determine whether lower birthweight is related to the occurrence of syndrome X-Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. The first study included 407 men born in Hertfordshire, England between 1920 and 1930 whose weights at birth and at 1 year of age had been recorded by health visitors. The second study included 266 men and women born in Preston, UK, between 1935 and 1943 whose size at birth had been measured in detail. The prevalence of syndrome X fell progressively in both men and women, from those who had the lowest to those who had the highest birthweights. Of 64-year-old men whose birthweights were 2.95 kg (6.5 pounds) or less, 22% had syndrome X. Their risk of developing syndrome X was more than 10 times greater than that of men whose birthweights were more than 4.31 kg (9.5 pounds). The association between syndrome X and low birthweight was independent of duration of gestation and of possible confounding variables including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and social class currently or at birth. In addition to low birthweight, subjects with syndrome X had small head circumference and low ponderal index at birth, and low weight and below-average dental eruption at 1 year of age. It is concluded that Type 2 diabetes and hypertension have a common origin in sub-optimal development in utero, and that syndrome X should perhaps be re-named "the small-baby syndrome".
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            In utero programming of chronic disease.

            1. Many human fetuses have to adapt to a limited supply of nutrients. In doing so they permanently change their structure and metabolism. 2. These 'programmed' changes may be the origins of a number of diseases in later life, including coronary heart disease and the related disorders stroke, diabetes and hypertension. 3. This review examines the evidence linking these diseases to fetal undernutrition and provides an overview of previous studies in this area.
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              Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy.

              In a historical cohort study of 300,000 19-year-old men exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 and examined at military induction, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition determines subsequent obesity. Outcomes were opposite depending on the time of exposure. During the last trimester of pregnancy and the first months of life, exposure produced significantly lower obesity rates (P less than 0.005). This result is consistent with the inference that nutritional deprivation affected a critical period of development for adipose-tissue cellularity. During the first half of pregnancy, however, exposure resulted in significantly higher obesity rates (P less than 0.0005). This observation is consistent with the inference that nutritional deprivation affected the differentiation of hypothalamic centers regulating food intake and growth, and that subsequent increased food availability produced an accumulation of excess fat in an organism growing to its predetermined maximum size.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                November 2004
                22 November 2004
                : 62
                : 5
                : 233-240
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatrics and bClinical Chemistry and Endocrinology, and cICEN VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, and dDepartment of Educational Organization and Management, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
                Article
                81467 Horm Res 2004;62:233–240
                10.1159/000081467
                15479984
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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