During field surveys of myxomycetes in Central America, 2 previously unrecorded genera and 4 species, viz. Craterium muscorum Ing, Dictydiaethalium dictyosporum Nann.-Bremek., Physarina echinocephala Höhn, and Stemonaria rufipes, were identified. Some of these are new for the Neotropics. These noteworthy range extensions of these species to the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot adds to our knowledge of rarely recorded myxomycetes worldwide. Images of the more relevant taxonomic characters are provided, and for some species, this is the first illustrations with macro and microphotographs and scanning electron microscopy images.