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      Nutrient uptake, yield and taste of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and soil chemical properties following amendment with uncomposted and composted tobacco waste and cattle manure


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          The inadequacy of the nutrient supply of most tropical and sub-tropical soils may be curbed through organic material recycling, thus reducing the need for mineral fertiliser use. To promote tobacco waste recycling in a smallholder food-cash crop production system, nutrient uptake, dry biomass yield and taste of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and soil chemical properties were determined on a sandy loam soil under field conditions. The experiment was a randomised complete block design with three blocks and eight treatments, namely, control (no amendment), mineral fertiliser (121, 30.8, 24.6 kg/ha N, P and K, respectively), uncomposted tobacco leaf scrap (TSC) and compost of TSC and cattle manure (TSC-CM) at 5, 20 and 40 t/ha. N, P and K uptake and dry biomass yield of oilseed rape were higher (p<0.05) than control with 40 t/ha TSC-CM and mineral fertiliser application at 3 weeks after transplanting (WAT), while significant improvements with TSC were observed from 5 WAT. Mineral N, extractable P and exchangeable K were higher than control with TSC-CM at 20 t/ha and 40 t/ha at 3 WAT, and higher with TSC at 9 WAT. Soil organic carbon was more improved with TSC application than TSC-CM at 9 WAT. Organoleptic testing revealed an intensely bitter taste in oilseed rape with mineral fertiliser, 20 t/ha and 40 t/ha TSC at 3 WAT, although it diminished with time. A trade-off of nutrient uptake, yield, taste of oilseed rape and soil properties improvement is attainable with application of TSC-CM at 40 t/ha, while if composting is not feasible, TSC application at 20 t/ha is a viable alternative. Thus, judicious utilisation of tobacco waste offers a viable solution to the problem of low soil fertility on sandy soils and can reduce the need for mineral fertiliser use, while promising sustainable soil management. SIGNIFICANCE: • The study underlines the importance of recycling of organic materials as a viable, environmentally safe and low-cost soil fertility management practice. • The study presents pragmatic practices that may be adopted so as to optimise the benefits of use of tobacco waste on food-cash crop smallholder farms, given the increasing popularity of such farming systems in Africa.

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          Most cited references42

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          Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

          New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.
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            Zinc fertilization influence on maize productivity and grain nutritional quality under integrated soil fertility management in Zimbabwe

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              Characterization of environmentally friendly nicotine degradation by Pseudomonas putida biotype A strain S16.

              Nicotine and some related alkaloids in tobacco and tobacco wastes are harmful to health and the environment, and a major environmental requirement is to remove them from tobacco and tobacco wastes. In this study, an isolated strain, S16, identified as Pseudomonas putida biotype A, was used to investigate nicotine degradation. Possible intermediates were identified based on the results of NMR, Fourier-transform (FT)-IR and UV spectroscopy, GC-MS and high-resolution MS (HR-MS) analysis. The pathway of nicotine degradation in P. putida was proposed to be from nicotine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine through the intermediates N-methylmyosmine, 2'-hydroxynicotine, pseudooxynicotine, 3-pyridinebutanal,C-oxo, 3-succinoylpyridine and 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine. N-Methylmyosmine, 2,5-dihydroxypyridine and succinic acid were detected and satisfactorily verified for the first time as intermediates of nicotine degradation. In addition, an alcohol compound, 1-butanone,4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridinyl), was found to be a novel product of nicotine degradation. These findings provide new insights into the microbial metabolism of nicotine and the environmentally friendly route of nicotine degradation.

                Author and article information

                South African Journal of Science
                S. Afr. j. sci.
                Academy of Science of South Africa (Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa )
                October 2020
                : 116
                : 9-10
                : 1-9
                [02] Marondera orgnameMarondera University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology orgdiv1Department of Natural Resources Management Zimbabwe
                [03] Harare orgnameUniversity of Zimbabwe orgdiv1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering Zimbabwe
                [01] Pietermaritzburg orgnameUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal orgdiv1School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences South Africa
                S0038-23532020000600016 S0038-2353(20)11600900016

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 22 January 2020
                : 22 June 2020
                : 10 June 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 9

                SciELO South Africa

                Research Articles

                soil organic carbon,compost,organic amendment,organoleptic test


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