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      Introduction of everolimus in kidney transplant recipients at a late posttransplant stage

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          Abstract

          This minireview focuses on the current knowledge about the introduction of everolimus (EVL), a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) elimination or minimization in kidney transplant recipients at a late posttransplant stage. Within, we have summarized two major clinical trials, ASCERTAIN and APOLLO, and seven other retrospective or nonrandomized studies. In the open-label multicenter ASCERTAIN study, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 24 mo after conversion was not significantly different between three groups-EVL with CNI elimination, CNI minimization and continued CNI unchanged-at a mean of 5.4 years after transplantation. However, recipients with baseline creatinine clearance higher than 50 mL/min had a greater increase in measured GFR after CNI elimination. In the open-label multicenter APOLLO study, adjusted eGFR within the on-treatment population was significantly higher in the EVL continuation group than in the CNI continuation group at 12 mo after conversion at a mean of 7 years posttransplantation. Other studies on recipients without adverse events and already having satisfactory renal function showed favorable graft function by EVL late-induction with CNI elimination or reduction. These studies showed that chronic allograft nephropathy, CNI nephrotoxicity, CNI arteriolopathy, cancer and viral infection (especially cytomegalovirus infection) may be good indications for late conversion to EVL.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Sirolimus therapy after early cyclosporine withdrawal reduces the risk for cancer in adult renal transplantation.

          Sirolimus (SRL) is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that, in contrast to cyclosporine (CsA), has been shown to inhibit rather than promote cancers in experimental models. At 3 mo +/- 2 wk after renal transplantation, 430 of 525 enrolled patients were randomly assigned to remain on SRL-CsA-steroids (ST) or to have CsA withdrawn and SRL troughs increased two-fold (SRL-ST). Median times to first skin and nonskin malignancies were compared between treatments using a survival analysis. Mean annualized rates of skin malignancy were calculated, and the relative risk was determined using a Poisson model. Malignancy-free survival rates for nonskin malignancies were compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank test. At 5 yr, the median time to a first skin carcinoma was delayed (491 versus 1126 d; log-rank test, P = 0.007), and the risk for an event was significantly lower with SRL-ST therapy (relative risk SRL-ST to SRL-CsA-ST 0.346; 95% confidence interval 0.227 to 0.526; P < 0.001, intention-to-treat analysis). The relative risks for both basal and squamous cell carcinomas were significantly reduced. Kaplan-Meier estimates of nonskin cancer were 9.6 versus 4.0% (SRL-CsA-ST versus SRL-ST; P = 0.032, intention-to-treat analysis). Nonskin cancers included those of the lung, larynx, oropharynx, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, breast, thyroid, and cervix as well as glioma, liposarcoma, astrocytoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Patients who received SRL-based, calcineurin inhibitor-free therapy after CsA withdrawal at month 3 had a reduced incidence of both skin and nonskin malignancies at 5 yr after renal transplantation compared with those who received SRL therapy combined with CsA. Longer follow-up and additional trials are needed to confirm these promising results.
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            Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity: longitudinal assessment by protocol histology.

            The role and burden of cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity in long-term progressive kidney graft dysfunction is poorly documented. The authors evaluated 888 prospective protocol kidney biopsy specimens from 99 patients taken regularly until 10 years after transplantation for evidence of CsA nephrotoxicity. The most sensitive histologic marker of CsA nephrotoxicity was arteriolar hyalinosis, predicted by CsA dose and functional CsA nephrotoxicity. Striped fibrosis was associated with early initiation of CsA and the need for posttransplant dialysis (both P < 0.05). The 10-year cumulative Kaplan-Meier prevalence of arteriolar hyalinosis, striped fibrosis, and tubular microcalcification was 100%, 88.0%, and 79.2% of kidneys, respectively. Beyond 1 year, 53.9% had two or more lesions of CsA nephrotoxicity. Structural CsA nephrotoxicity occurred in two phases, with different clinical and histologic characteristics. The acute phase occurred with a median onset 6 months after transplantation, was usually reversible, and was associated with functional CsA nephrotoxicity (P < 0.05), high CsA levels (P < 0.05), and mild arteriolar hyalinosis (P < 0.001). The chronic phase of CsA nephrotoxicity persisted over several biopsies, occurred at a median onset of 3 years, and was associated with lower CsA doses and trough levels (both P < 0.05). It was largely irreversible and accompanied by severe arteriolar hyalinosis and progressive glomerulosclerosis (both P < 0.001). A threshold CsA dose of 5 mg/kg/day predicted worsening of arteriolar hyalinosis on sequential histology. Pathologic changes of CsA nephrotoxicity were virtually universal by 10 years and exacerbated chronic allograft nephropathy. CsA is unsuitable as a universal, long-term immunosuppressive agent for kidney transplantation. Strategies to ameliorate or avoid nephrotoxicity are thus urgently needed.
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              Immunosuppressive drugs in kidney transplantation: impact on patient survival, and incidence of cardiovascular disease, malignancy and infection.

              Renal transplant recipients have increased mortality rates when compared with the general population. The new immunosuppressive drugs have improved short-term patient survival up to 95% at 1-2 years, but these data have to be confirmed in long-term follow-up. Furthermore, no particular regimen has proved to be superior over others with regard to patient survival. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients and while no immunosuppressive drug has been directly associated with cardiovascular events, immunosuppressive drugs have different impacts on traditional risk factors. Corticosteroids and ciclosporin are the agents with the most negative impact on weight gain, blood pressure and lipids. Tacrolimus increases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Sirolimus and everolimus have the most impact on risk factors for post-transplant hyperlipidaemia. Modifications in immunosuppression could improve the cardiovascular profile but there is little evidence regarding the beneficial effects of these changes on patient outcomes. Malignancies are also an increasing cause of mortality, overtaking cardiovascular disease in some series. Induction therapy, azathioprine and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are probably the immunosuppressive agents most linked with post-transplant malignancies. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has no negative impact on the incidence of malignancies. Target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have antioncogenic properties and they are associated with a lower incidence of malignancies. In addition, these agents have been recommended for use to decrease the dose or withdrawal of CNIs in patients with malignancies. Infections are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. Some immunosuppressive agents such as MMF increase the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection and the need for prophylactic measures in risk recipients. The use of potent immunosuppressive therapy has resulted in the appearance of BK virus nephropathy, which progresses to graft failure in a high percentage of patients. Although first associated with tacrolimus and MMF immunosuppression, recent data suggest that BK nephropathy appears with any kind of triple therapy. In conclusion, reducing risk factors for patient death should be a major target to improve outcomes after renal transplantation. Effort should be made to control cardiovascular diseases, malignancies and infections with improved use of immunosuppressive drugs. Preliminary results with belatacept suggest its safety and efficacy, and open new perspectives in the immunosuppression of de novo renal transplant recipients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                World J Transplant
                WJT
                World Journal of Transplantation
                Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
                2220-3230
                10 September 2018
                10 September 2018
                : 8
                : 5
                : 150-155
                Affiliations
                Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan. m9492120@ 123456msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp
                Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
                Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
                Author notes

                Author contributions: Uchida J, Iwai T and Nakatani T contributed equally to this work, generated the tables and wrote the manuscript.

                Correspondence to: Junji Uchida, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3, Abeno-ku, Asahi-machi, Osaka 545-8585, Japan. m9492120@ 123456msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

                Telephone: +81-6-66453857 Fax: +81-6-66474426

                Article
                jWJT.v8.i5.pg150
                10.5500/wjt.v8.i5.150
                6134274
                ©The Author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

                This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

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