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Suitability of electrolyzed oxidizing water for the disinfection of hard surfaces and equipment in radiology

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      Abstract

      Background

      Hospitals are faced with increasingly resistant strains of micro-organisms. When it comes to disinfection, individual parts of electronic equipment of angiology diagnostics such as patient couches of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners prove to be very hard to disinfect. Disinfectants of choice are therefore expected to possess properties such as rapid, residue-free action without any damaging effect on the sensitive electronic equipment. This paper discusses the use of the neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a biocide for the disinfection of diagnostic rooms and equipment.

      Methods

      The CT and MRI rooms were aerosolized with EOW using aerosolization device. The presence of micro-organisms before and after the aerosolization was recorded with the help of sedimentation and cyclone air sampling. Total body count (TBC) was evaluated in absolute and log values.

      Results

      The number of micro-organisms in hospital rooms was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible TBC reduction between 78.99–92.50% or 50.50–70.60% in log values was recorded.

      Conclusions

      The research has shown that the use of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of micro-organisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the sedimentation procedure is insufficient for the TBC determination. The use of Biocide aerosolization proved to be efficient and safe in all applied ways. Also, no eventual damage to exposed devices or staff was recorded.

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      Most cited references 45

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      Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomised study.

      In a multicentre study of sepsis after total hip or knee replacement the operations performed by each surgeon were allocated at random between control and ultraclean-air operating rooms. Records were obtained from over 8000 such operations. In the patients whose prostheses were inserted in an operating room ventilated by an ultraclean-air system the incidence of joint sepsis confirmed at reoperation within the next one to four years was about half that of patients who had had the operation in a conventionally ventilated room at the same hospital. When whole-body exhaust-ventilated suits had been worn by the operating team in a theatre ventilated by an ultraclean-air system the incidence of sepsis was about a quarter of that found after operations performed with conventional ventilation. When all groups in the trial were considered together the analysis showed deep sepsis after 63 out of 4133 operations in the control group (1.5%) and after 23 out of 3922 operations in the ultraclean-air groups (0.6%) (ratio 2.6, 95% confidence limits 1.6-4.2; p less than 0.001). The design of the study did not include a strictly controlled test of the effect of prophylactic antibiotics, but their use was associated with a lower incidence of sepsis than in patients who had received no antibiotic prophylaxis at their operations (0.6% (34/5831) v 2.3% (52/2221); ratio 4.0).
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        Effects of storage conditions and pH on chlorine loss in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water.

        The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light. Under closed conditions, the chlorine loss did not follow first-order kinetics, because the primary mechanism of chlorine loss may be self-decomposition of chlorine species rather than chlorine evaporation. The effect of diffused light was more significant compared to agitation after two months of storage under closed conditions. The chlorine loss of EO water and commercial chlorinated water decreased dramatically with the increase of pH from the acidic (pH 2.5) to the alkaline (pH 9.0) region.
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          Microcyn: a novel super-oxidized water with neutral pH and disinfectant activity.

          A new super-oxidized water (SOW) product, Microcyn, was tested for in vitro antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The effectiveness of this neutral-pH SOW at killing Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans in pure culture was evaluated. One millilitre (approximately 10(8)colony-forming units/mL) of each micro-organism was subjected to 9 mL Microcyn or sterile water at room temperature for 30s. Under these conditions, a log(10) reduction factor of 8 in the level of all pathogens occurred in the treatment samples. In addition, results of tests with three batches of Microcyn exposed to Bacillus atrophaeus spores for 5 min demonstrated complete inactivation of the spores within 2-3 min (log(10) reduction factor >4). The effectiveness of Microcyn in reducing human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) on hard surfaces (glass) was also evaluated in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency requirements for virucidal claims. After exposure of the tested surfaces to Microcyn for 5 min without agitation, there was a log(10) reduction factor >3 in the viral load as measured by both cytopathic effect and antigen p24 of HIV-1 production in MT-2 cultures. Microcyn activity against adenoviral vector type 5 was also analysed under simulated laboratory in-use conditions with viral suspensions. In order to increase the sensitivity of the test, the fluorescent light emitted by AdGFP-infected cells was measured with the use of a flow cytometer. A log(10) reduction factor >3 in the viral load was achieved after a 5-min exposure to Microcyn under these strict conditions. These results show that Microcyn exerts a wide antimicrobial spectrum with major advantages over acidic SOWs, including neutral pH, lower free active chlorine (51-85 ppm) and long shelf life (1 year).
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Department of Radiology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
            [ ]University of Ljubljana, Veterinary faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia
            Contributors
            robert.pintaric@gmail.com
            matela@ukc-mb.si
            stefan.pintaric@vf.uni-lj-si
            Journal
            J Environ Health Sci Eng
            J Environ Health Sci Eng
            Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering
            BioMed Central (London )
            2052-336X
            28 January 2015
            28 January 2015
            2015
            : 13
            : 1
            4311484 160 10.1186/s40201-015-0160-8
            © Pintaric et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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            © The Author(s) 2015

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