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      Highly porous coral-like silicon particles synthesized by an ultra-simple thermal-reduction method

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          Abstract

          The highly porous coral-like Si particles have been successfully synthesized using an ultra-simple Mg-thermal-reduction method in air.

          Abstract

          Porous Si is considered a potential anode material for next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high specific capacity, low lithiation/delithiation potential, low cost, and environmental friendliness. In this work, we introduce a simplified Mg-thermal-reduction method for the production of mass-scalable coral-like bulk-Si powder with a high surface area (38 m 2 g −1), broad pore-size distribution (2–200 nm), and 3-dimensionally (3D) interconnected Si structure for application in LIBs. The porous, coral-like Si electrode delivered a high reversible capacity of 2451 mA h g −1, corresponding to ∼70% of the theoretical capacity of Si, at a rate of C/10. After 100 cycles, the porous, coral-like Si electrode maintained a capacity of 1956 mA h g −1, corresponding to 79.8% of the initial reversible capacity. Importantly, a reasonably high reversible capacity of 614 mA h g −1 was achieved even at a high rate of 10C. These outstanding results demonstrate that the 3D-networked, porous, coral-like Si powder, synthesized via a NaCl-assisted Mg-thermal-reduction process on a stainless-steel plate over a period of one minute, can be employed as a promising anode material for the next generation of high-energy LIBs.

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          High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

          There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
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            High-performance lithium-ion anodes using a hierarchical bottom-up approach.

            Si-based Li-ion battery anodes have recently received great attention, as they offer specific capacity an order of magnitude beyond that of conventional graphite. The applications of this transformative technology require synthesis routes capable of producing safe and easy-to-handle anode particles with low volume changes and stable performance during battery operation. Herein, we report a large-scale hierarchical bottom-up assembly route for the formation of Si on the nanoscale--containing rigid and robust spheres with irregular channels for rapid access of Li ions into the particle bulk. Large Si volume changes on Li insertion and extraction are accommodated by the particle's internal porosity. Reversible capacities over five times higher than that of the state-of-the-art anodes (1,950 mA h g(-1)) and stable performance are attained. The synthesis process is simple, low-cost, safe and broadly applicable, providing new avenues for the rational engineering of electrode materials with enhanced conductivity and power.
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              Stable cycling of double-walled silicon nanotube battery anodes through solid-electrolyte interphase control.

               Yuan Yang,  Yi Cui,  Ill Ryu (2012)
              Although the performance of lithium ion-batteries continues to improve, their energy density and cycle life remain insufficient for applications in consumer electronics, transport and large-scale renewable energy storage. Silicon has a large charge storage capacity and this makes it an attractive anode material, but pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase has limited the cycle life of silicon anodes to hundreds of cycles. Here, we show that anodes consisting of an active silicon nanotube surrounded by an ion-permeable silicon oxide shell can cycle over 6,000 times in half cells while retaining more than 85% of their initial capacity. The outer surface of the silicon nanotube is prevented from expansion by the oxide shell, and the expanding inner surface is not exposed to the electrolyte, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. Batteries containing these double-walled silicon nanotube anodes exhibit charge capacities approximately eight times larger than conventional carbon anodes and charging rates of up to 20C (a rate of 1C corresponds to complete charge or discharge in one hour).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCAET
                Journal of Materials Chemistry A
                J. Mater. Chem. A
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7488
                2050-7496
                2018
                2018
                : 6
                : 6
                : 2834-2846
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                [2 ]Chonnam National University
                [3 ]Gwangju 61186
                [4 ]South Korea
                [5 ]School of Chemical Engineering
                [6 ]Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
                [7 ]Daejeon 34141
                Article
                10.1039/C7TA09042K
                © 2018
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7TA09042K

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