+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the design and development of drugs, as well as the clinical outcomes, patient safety, and programs targeted at the effective and safe use of medicines. Sign up for email alerts here.

      88,007 Monthly downloads/views I 4.319 Impact Factor I 6.6 CiteScore I 1.12 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.784 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)


      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Leishmania donovani Growth Inhibitors from Pathogen Box Compounds of Medicine for Malaria Venture


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Leishmaniasis is a collective term used to describe various pathological conditions caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It is one of the neglected diseases and has been given minimal attention by drug discovery and development stakeholders to narrow the safety and efficacy gaps of the drugs currently used to treat leishmaniasis. The challenge is further exacerbated by the emergence of drug resistance by the parasites.


          Aiming to look for potential anti-leishmanial hits and leads, we screened Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Pathogen Box compounds against clinically isolated Leishmania donovani strain. In this medium-throughput primary screening assay, the compounds were screened against promastigotes, and then against amastigote stages.


          From the total 400 compounds screened, 35 compounds showed >50% inhibitory activity on promastigotes in the initial screen (1 μM). Out of these compounds, nine showed >70% inhibition, with median inhibitory concentration (IC 50) ranging from 12 to 491 nM using the anti-promastigote assay, and from 53 to 704 nM using the intracellular amastigote assay. Identified compounds demonstrated acceptable safety profiles on THP-1 cell lines and sheep red blood cells, and had appropriate physicochemical properties suitable for further drug development. Two compounds (MMV690102 and MMV688262) were identified as leads. The anti-tubercular agent MMV688262 (delamanid) showed a synergistic effect with amphotericin B, indicating the prospect of using this compound for combination therapy.


          The current study indicates the presence of additional hits which may hold promise as starting points for anti-leishmanial drug discovery and in-depth structure–activity relationship studies.

          Most cited references36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies

          Background The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale. Methodology and Principal Findings Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53), sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level), and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Conclusions and Significance We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they transmit and the animal reservoirs of the parasites.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Drug resistance in leishmaniasis.

            Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

              Leishmaniasis is a cluster of diseases caused by protozoa in the genus Leishmania. There are three basic clinical forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. The present review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Characteristics of both the human host and the parasite species influence the clinical disease manifestations that range from asymptomatic exposure, to self-healing skin ulcers, to life-threatening widespread destructive ulcerations. Whether through medical treatment or through spontaneous resolution, skin ulcerations generally result in disfiguring scars with significant social and economic impact. Tests to confirm the diagnosis should be performed on patients who have recently visited endemic areas and have skin or mucosal manifestations consistent with leishmaniasis. Treatment depends on the species of Leishmania and the risk of widespread or disfiguring disease. Because of increasing trends in global travel, educating health care providers to recognize and treat leishmaniasis in both endemic and non-endemic countries is imperative.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                31 March 2020
                : 14
                : 1307-1317
                [1 ]Animal Health Research Program, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research , Holetta, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Center for Innovative Drug Development and Therapeutic Trials for Africa (CDT Africa), College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [4 ]Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Solomon M Abay P.O. Box 9086, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTel +251 941 22 2169 Email solomonabay@gmail.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                © 2020 Tadele et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 07 January 2020
                : 18 March 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 51, Pages: 11
                This work was supported by the Medicines for Malaria Venture’s Exploiting the Pathogen Box Challenge Grants PO 15/01083[04] (PI Abay S.). The authors acknowledge MMV for providing access to the Pathogen Box.
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                leishmania donovani,pathogen box compounds,medicines for malaria venture,drug discovery


                Comment on this article